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Question. 1Properties of Papers
(papers)
Answer.

 

Basis Weight (GSM) 
The weight or substance per unit area is obviously fundamental in paper and paper board products. The Basis weight of paper is the weight per unit area. This can be expressed as the weight in grams per square metre (GSM or g/M2), pounds per 1000 sq. ft. or weight in kgs or pounds per ream (500 sheets) of a specific size. REAM WEIGHT is a common term to signify the weight of a lot or batch of paper. Control of basis weight is important as all other properties are affected. Variations in moisture content in paper affects the grammage. 



 

Brightness, Whiteness and Colour 
Brightness is defined as the percentage reflectance of blue light only at a wavelength of 457 nm. Whiteness refers to the extent that paper diffusely reflects light of all wave lengths throughout the visible spectrum. Whiteness is an appearance term. Colour is an aesthetic value. Colour may appear different when viewed under a different light source. Brightness is an arbitrarily defined, but carefully standardised, blue reflectance that is used throughout the pulp and paper industry for the control of mill processes and in certain types of research and development programs. Brightness is not whiteness. However, the brightness values of the pulps and pigments going into the paper provide an excellent measure of the maximum whiteness that can be achieved with proper tinting. The colour of paper, like of other materials, depends in a complicated way on the characteristics of the observer and a number of physical factors such as the spectral energy distribution of the illuminant, the geometry of illuminating and viewing, the nature and extent of the surround and the optical characteristics of the paper itself. 



 

Bulk 
Bulk is a term used to indicate volume or thickness in relation to weight. It is the reciprocal of density (weight per unit volume). It is calculated from caliper and basis weight. Sheet bulk relates to all other sheet properties. Decrease the bulk or in other words increase the density, and the sheet gets smoother, glossier, less opaque, darker, lower in strength etc. 



 

Dimensional Stability 
An important consequence of the absorption and de-absorption of moisture by paper is the change in dimension that usually accompanies changes in moisture content. Such changes in dimension may seriously affect register in printing processes and interfere with the use of such items as tabulating cards. Uneven dimensional changes cause undesirable cockling and curling. Dimensional changes in paper originate in the swelling and contraction of the individual fibres. It has been observed that cellulosic fibres swell in diameter from 15 to 20% in passing from the dry condition to the fibre saturation point. It is impossible to be precise about the degree of this swelling because paper-making fibres differ considerably in this property, and because the irregular cross-section of fibres creates difficulty in defining diameter. Change that occurs in the dimensions of paper with variation in the moisture content is an important consideration in the use of paper. All papers expand with increased moisture content and contract with decreased moisture content, but the rate and extent of changes vary with different papers. 



 

Folding Endurance (Double Folds) 
Folding endurance is the paper's capability of withstanding multiple folds before it breaks. It is defined as the number of double folds that a strip of 15 mm wide and 100 mm length can withstand under a specified load before it breaks. It is important for printing grades where the paper is subjected to multiple folds like in books, maps, or pamphlets. Fold test is also important for carton, box boards, ammonia print paper, and cover paper etc. Folding endurance is a requirement in Bond, Ledger, Currency, Map, Blue Print and Record Papers. 



 

Formation 
Formation is an indicator of how the fibres and fillers are distributed in the sheet. Formation plays an important role as most of the paper properties depend on it. Paper that is poorly formed will have weak, thin spots and thick spots. These will affect properties like caliper, opacity, strength etc. Paper formation also affects the coating capabilities and printing characteristics of the paper. 



 

Gloss 
It is the specularly and diffusely reflected light component measurement against a known standard. Gloss is important for printing such things as magazine advertisements. The level of gloss desired is very dependent on the end use of the paper. Gloss and smoothness are different properties and are not dependent on each other. 



 

Machine and Cross Direction 
Paper has a definite grain direction due to greater orientation of fibres in the direction of travel of the paper machine. This grain direction is known as machine direction. The cross direction is the direction of paper at right angles to the machine direction. Some of the properties vary with the MD and CD and hence the values are reported in both the directions. While sheeting the paper, machine and cross direction are to be kept in mind and the sheet cutting to be done to suit the end use requirements. Examples: 1. All printing papers are to be cut in long grain (The biggest dimension in the grain direction). 2. Book papers fold better and the book stays open better if the sheets are out so that the machine direction runs up and down the pages. 3. Wrap around labels for metal cans and bottles are to be cut with the machine direction vertical to obtain greater flexibility about the can. Long grain and Short grain : The sheet is in long grain if the larger dimension is parallel to grain (MD) direction. The sheet is said to be in short grain if the larger dimension is parallel to cross direction (CD). 



 

Moisture 
Most physical properties of paper undergo change as a result of variations in moisture content. Water has the effect of plasticising the cellulose fibre and of relaxing and weakening the interfibre bonding. The electrical resistance and the dielectric constant of paper both vary with moisture content. The absorption and reflectance of certain bands of infrared and microwave radiation by paper are affected by its moisture content. The amount of water present in a sheet of paper is usually expressed as a percent. The amount of water plays an important role in calendaring, printing and converting process. Moisture control is also significant to the economic aspect of paper making. Poor moisture control can adversely affect many paper properties. 



 

Opacity 
Opacity is the measure of how much light is kept away from passing through a sheet. A perfectly opaque paper is the one that is absolutely impervious to the passage of all visible light. It is the ratio of diffused reflectance and the reflectance of single sheet backed by a black body. Opacity is important in Printing Papers, Book Papers, etc. 



 

Porosity 
Because paper is composed of a randomly felted layer of fibre, it follows that the structure has a varying degree of porosity. Thus, the ability of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper. Paper is a highly porous material and contains as such as 70% air. Porosity is a highly critical factor in Printing Papers Laminating Paper, Filter Paper, Cigarette Paper. Bag Paper, Antitarnish Paper and Label Paper. Porosity is the measurement of the total connecting air voids, both vertical and horizontal, that exists in a sheet. Porosity of sheet is an indication of absorptivity or the ability of the sheets to accept ink or water. Porosity can also be a factor in a vacuum feeding operation on a printing press. 



 

Sizing / Cobb 
Because paper is composed of a randomly felted layer of fibre, it's structure has a varying degree of porosity. Thus, the ability of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper. The need to limit the spreading of ink resulted in "sizing" the paper with gelatinous vegetable materials which had the effect of sealing or filling the surface pores. Later, the term "sizing" was applied to the treatment of paper stock prior to the formation of the sheet, with water-repellent materials such as rosin or wax. Resistance towards the penetration of aqueous solution / water is measured by Sizing or Cobb values. 



 

Smoothness 
Smoothness is concerned with the surface contour of paper. It is the flatness of the surface under testing conditions which considers roughness, liveliness, and compressibility. In most of the uses of paper, the character of the surface is of great importance. It is common to say that paper has a "smooth" or a "rough" texture. The terms "finish" and "pattern" are frequently used in describing the contour or appearance of paper surfaces. Smoothness in important for writing, where it affects the ease of travel of the pen over the paper surface. Finish is important in bag paper as it is related to the tendency of the bag to slide when stacked. Smoothness of the paper will often determine whether or not it can be successfully printed. Smoothness also gives eye appeal as a rough paper is unattractive. 



 

Stiffness 
Stiffness is the measure of force required to bend a paper through a specified angle. Stiffness is an important property for box boards, corrugating medium and to certain extent for printing papers also. A limpy and flimsy paper can cause feeding and delivery problems in larger sheet presses. A sheet that is too stiff will cause problems in copier machines where it must traverse over, under, and around feed rollers. Bond papers also require certain stiffness to be flat in typewriters etc. 



 

Stretch (Elongation) 
Stretch is the amount of distortion which paper undergoes under tensile stress. Stretchlelongation is usually expressed, as percent stretch to rupture. Stretch can be related to the paper's ability to conform and maintain conformance to a particular contour, e.g. Copier paper, multicolor offset printing papers, liquids packing cartons base papers etc. It is an important property in sack kraft papers which are used for cement bags etc. Stretch is higher in cross direction than machine direction. 



 

Tearing Resistance 
Tearing resistance indicates the behaviour of paper in various end use situations; such as evaluating web runnability, controlling the quality of newsprint and characterising the toughness of packaging papers where the ability to absorb shocks is essential. fibre length and interfibre bonding are both important factors in tearing strength. The fact that longer fibres improve tear strength is well recognised. The explanation is straight forward; longer fibres tend to distribute the stress over a greater area, over more fibres and more bonds, while short fibres allow the stress to be concentrated in a smaller area. 



 

Temperature and Humidity: Conditioning of Paper 
Conditioning of paper is also of importance in many printing and converting operations. In addition to the effect of moisture content on physical properties, it also determines the build up of static of the paper sheet subjected to pressure and to friction. The tendency for paper to develop static becomes greater with increasing dryness. Cellulosic fibres are hygroscopic i.e. they are capable of absorbing water from the surrounding atmosphere. The amount of absorbed water depends on the humidity and the temperature of the air in contact with the paper. Hence, changes in temperature and humidity, even slight changes, can often affect the test results. So, it is necessary to maintain standard conditions of humidity and temperature for conditioning. 



 

Thickness 
Thickness or Caliper of paper is measured with a micrometre as the perpendicular distance between two circular, plane, parallel surfaces under a pressure of 1 kg./ CM2. Caliper is a critical measurement of uniformity. Variations in caliper, can affect several basic properties including strength, optical and roll quality. Thickness is important in filling cards, printing papers, condenser paper, saturating papers etc. 



 

Wax Pick No. (Surface Strength) 
This indicates the surface strength of the paper. This test is important for all uncoated printing papers. 



 

Wire side and Felt side 
Also referred as wire side and top side. The side which is in contact with the paper machine wire during paper manufacture is called the wire side. The other side is top side. Certain properties differ between wire and felt side and it is customary to measure these properties on both the sides. In case of paper to be printed on one side only, best results are obtained by printing on felt side. Postage stamps are printed on wire side and then gummed on felt side, where the smoothness is helpful for attaining an even application.

 
Question. 2Different types of papers
(papers)
Answer.

 

Abrasive Kraft
Used For : Abrasive Kraft is used for making sand paper used in roughening applications.

Absorbent Kraft
Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

Alkaline Paper
Paper having pH values greater than 7 made by an alkaline manufacturing process.

Anti Rust Paper
Paper which has the property of protecting the surfaces of ferrous metals against rust.

Antique Paper
Printing paper having good bulk and opacity with rough or matt surface.

Art Paper
Normally, china clay (kaolin) coated on both sides of the paper. This finish of both the sides is same, be it glossy or matt.

Used For : Brochures, calendars, magazine covers, magazine text, where high quality printing is required

Azurelaid Paper
A laid paper usually bluish green in colour having a good writing surface.

Barograph Paper
Red thin paper coated on one side with a white wax, so that the needle of the barograph leaves a red line on a white ground, sold in rolls and coils and to suit the type of barograph.

Base Paper
This paper is generally used by a converter to either coat or laminate. Different grades are available for different applications.

Used For : Mostly used for converting into a value added grade

Battery Jacket
Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

Beedi Wrap Paper
Used For : Used for decorative purposes in different colours.

Bible Paper
Thin white opaque heavily loaded, used for printing bibles. Not suitable for pen and ink, because of its absorbency.

Blade Wrapper (SS)
Used For : Used for making of small packs for keeping razor blades.

Bond Paper
This paper has good strength properties, good stiffness and good aesthetical look. The name "bond" was originally given to a paper which was used for printing bonds, stock certificates, etc. Important characteristics are finish, strength, and freeness fro

Used For : Mostly used for letterheads and for image building stationery

Book Paper
A general term used to define a class of papers used by the book publishing industry; most commonly used for the book text paper but also for book cover paper.

Business Forms Paper
Paper made for the manufacture of business forms.

Used For : Used for business forms and data processing such as computer printouts.

Carbon Base
Carbon is normally manufactured in lower grammages like 20 gsm or less. The most important property in this paper is porosity which should be controlled at about 15-20 ml/min, so that absorption leads to cost increase while less absorption makes poor quality of carbon paper which is used many a time.

Carbon Paper
This thin paper could be either coated on one side or both sides with dry impressionable ink. The main function being to impart an identical copy of the original on the substrate. 

Used For : Mostly used where more than one copy is required simultaneously.

Carbonless Paper
Paper stock specially treated or coated to provide copies without the use of interleaved carbon. The copy process requires mechanical pressure such as from writing or typing and sometimes a chemical reaction.

Used For : Application forms, computer stationery, time saving stationery. Also used in copying applications without carbon paper.

Cardboard
A range of various boards such as pulp board, paste board, bristol board, ivory board, art board, chromo board in the form of a coherent sheet or web used for printing, packaging, decorating etc.

Cast Coated Paper
A coated paper with high gloss and absorptivity in which the coating has been allowed to harden or set while in contact with a mirror like polished chrome surface.

Chromo Paper
China clay (kaolin) coated on one side. The coating on one side could be glossy or matt as per requirement of the customer.

Used For : Mainly used for self adhesive stickers, calendars , posters, labels and for applications where only one side has to be printed

Cigarette Slide
Used For : Used for making of Cigarette Slides (180-200 gsm).Pulp board are multi layer boards can be used

Cigarette Tissue
It is a product of fashion. Hence brightness and whiteness of paper needs to be maintained. It is highly technical.

Used For : Used in bobbins of 25 mm width or so.

Cinema Poster
Used For : For printing Cinema posters, Wall papers

Clay Coating Base Paper
Used For : Used for coating with Clay for making chromo and art paper

Coated Paper
Paper could be coated on either or both sides. Coating applied on the paper could be as per the requirement. For example, china clay coating for glossy paper used for high quality printing or gum coated paper for use of printing stamps

Used For : Could have different applications for different coated papers

Copier Paper
Mainly used for copying. Used extensively in photocopiers, plain paper faxes, etc. and other office stationery. Thickness could range from 70 GSM onwards.

Used For : Copying, typing, plain paper faxes, general stationery

Creamwove Paper
Used For : Used for Computer Stationery purposes.

Defence Krafts
Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

Diary Paper
Used For : Used for making of diaries and sometimes for book printing and other applications.

Diazo Base Paper
The process involves coating of paper with Diazo solutions and a coupler. This is exposed to ultra violet rays coming through the image. The final print is developed by making the coating alkaline. In some cases it is developed by ammonia vapour.

Used For : Used for making of ammonia paper for image recording.

Electrical Insulating Papers
Used For : Used for Electrical insulation.

Extensible Sack Kraft
This paper is characterised by very high stretch and high capability to absorb tensile energy.

Used For : Used for packaging in sacks, the bulk commodities.

Fax Base Paper
It is first coated with photo conductive zinc oxide on which images exposed. Hence electrical conductivity / resistivity is to be controlled to ensure that the image is not conducted through the paper to the other side

Used For : For making Fax images

Flexible Carton Board
Used For : Used for making Flexible Cartons.

Fluorescent Paper
Used For : Used for Labels, Posters and decorative applications.

Fluting Medium
Used For : Used for Corrugated Board manufacturing.

Foil Base Poster, Board
Paper is laminated with metal foil using a suitable adhesive. Hence paper must have porosity to accept glue.

Used For : Used for lamination of paper with metal foil.

General Writing Paper (Note book)
Paper used for Note Books should have excellent bulks because note book should appear bulky, as otherwise it will be perceived as having less number of pages. Another important factor is cobb, since writing ink must go into the paper instantly and dry.

Used For : Used for note books.

Glassine Paper
These papers are characterised by very low porosity (air permeability less than 10 cubic cm min. Preservation of aroma and perfection against attack of external environment to the packed contents are also important qualities of the subject papers.

Used For : Used for food packagings and other special wrapping applications.

Greaseproof Paper
These papers are characterised by very low porosity (air permeability less than 10 cubic cm min. This gives resistance to grease and moisture. Preservation of aroma and perfection against attack of external environment to the packed contents are also important qualities of the subject papers.

Used For : Used for food packagings and other special wrapping applications.

Gypsum Board
Used For : This is used for making panel boards for interior partitions, false ceiling etc.

Ice Cream Cup
Used For : Used for making Ice Cream Cups.

Inter Leaving Kraft
Used For : Inter Leaving Kraft is used for separation of steel sheets in a stack.

Kite Poster
Used For : Used for decorative, purpose, Kites

Label Paper
Labels are normally printed on offset machine. Hence good wax pick is required. Wire side of the paper used for application of gum should have adequate porosity. Good printability, compressibility, absorbency and ink hold out give satisfactory printing.

Used For : Used for printing of labels in multi colour.

Laser Paper
Used For : Used for printing purposes where Laser beams are used.

Liner Board
Used For : Used for Corrugated Board manufacturing.

Metalisation Base Paper
Used For : Used for vacuum metalisation for packaging applications.

MICR Cheque Paper
MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. Codes, figures and words are read by computer by magnetic field created on them. By careful formulations the paper is designed to react against a wide range of ink eradicators. It gives a characteristic coloured stain of "flare up" on contact with acid, alkali, bleach and organic solvents like acetone, benzene, ethanol.

Used For : Used in making of cheques which are processed by computer.

Multi Part Stationery
Used For : Multi part stationery paper is used for computer applications where number of copies are printed in one attempt.

Newsprint
It has to be made with adequate strength properties and surface characteristics; especially wax pick. Optical properties brightness is required for better readability and appeal (with ink to paper contrast which improves readability of print) and opacity.

Used For : Used for printing our daily news papers and associated issues. It is used under very stringent shop-floor conditions by the news paper blouses for printing our daily news papers and associated.

One Time Carbon (OTC) Paper
A carbon paper intended to be used once as opposed to many times or multiple use carbon papers.

Used For : Mostly used in multi-part continuous stationery.

Poly Extrusin Base Paper
Used For : Used for Poly Extrusin for packaging.

Sanitary Tissue
Sanitary Tissues are made with rag pulp content in lower grammages from 5 gsm onward. Normal gsm range is 15 to 30. These papers are made in soft loosely felted conditions in order to obtain max. absorbency so that they can take water quickly and hold it after absorption. Made with high content of Alpha Cellulose or Rag %, they are treated with wetting agents to improve absorbency.

Used For : Used as Paper Towels, napkins, toilet tissues etc.

Shell Boards
Used For : Used for making of Cigarette Slides (180-200 gsm).Pulp board are multi layer boards can be used

Soap Wrapper Poster (ARSR)
Used For : Used for Wrapping of Soaps and detergents.

Soap Wrapper Poster (TDL)
Used For : Used for Wrapping of Soaps and detergents.

Tea Bag Paper
Used For : Used for retail packing of tea.

Textile Tubes and Cones
Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

Twist Wrap tissue
It possess properties of with standing breaking stress when twisted during packing of toffees. High bursting strength combined with excellent machine runnability makes it suitable for special packing operations which require papers with high twisting properties.

Used For : It is used in packing of pharmaceutical products after poly lamination or coating.

Wall Paper
Coated with multiple colours or floral designs.

Used For : Used as an alternative to paint. To give better aesthetic appeal to the walls.

Yellow Pages
Paper used for this needs to have high bulk (1.1 to 1.2), high tensile strength of about 2 kg/15 mm in MD and good opacity (90%) so that the fine print made on thin paper like 40 gsm would be readable on both side. Excellent reel build up is required for smooth feeding during printing. This requires every uniform profile of bulk, gsm, caliper, moisture etc.

Used For : Used for printing classified addresses and information in telephone directory.

Question. 3MINIMUM WAGES ACT, 1948
Answer.

 

MINIMUM WAGES ACT, 1948

Background

A tripartite Committee Viz., "The Committee on Fair Wage" was set up in 1948 to provide guidelines for wage structures in the country. The report of this Committee was a major landmark in the history of formulation of wage policy in India. Its recommendations set out the key concepts of the 'living wage', "minimum wages" and "fair wage" besides setting out guidelines for wage fixation.

Article 39 states that the State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing (a) that the citizen, men and women equally shall have the right to an adequate livelihood and (b) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women.

Article 43 states that the State shall endeavour, by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way, to give all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure, and social and cultural opportunities.

Enactment of the Minimum Wages Act

Historical Backdrop

*     The initiative started with the resolution placed by one Shri. K. G. R. Choudhary in 1920 for setting up Boards for determination of minimum wages in each industry.

*     The International Labour Conference adopted in 1928 Convention No.26 and Recommendation No. 30 relating to wage fixing machinery in trades or parts of trades.

*     On the recommendation of the Standing Labour Committee and Indian Labour Conference, a Labour Investigation Committee was appointed in 1943 to investigate into the question of wages and other matters like housing, social conditions and employment.

 

*     A draft bill was considered by the Indian Labour Conference in 1945.

*     The 8th meeting of the Standing Labour Committee recommended in 1946 to enact a separate legislation for the unorganized sector including working hours, minimum wages and paid holidays.

*     A Minimum Wages Bill was introduced in the Central Legislative Assembly on 11.4.46 to provide for fixation of minimum wages in certain employments. It was passed in 1946 and came into force with effect from 15.3.48.

Under the Act, Central and State Governments are appropriate Governments to

(a)        notify scheduled employment

(b)        fix/revise minimum wages

The Act contains list of all these employments for which minimum wages are to be fixed by the appropriate Governments.

There are two parts of the Schedule. Part I has non-agricultural employments whereas Part-II relates to employment in agriculture.

Criteria for notification of scheduled employment

Under the provisions of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, both Central and State Governments are appropriate Governments to fix, review and revise the minimum wages of the workers employed in the scheduled employments under their respective jurisdictions. The appropriate Governments have also been empowered to notify any employment in the schedule where the number of employees is 1000 or more and fix the rates of minimum wages in respect of the employees employed therein.

There are 45 scheduled employments in the Central Sphere while in the State Sphere the number of such employments is as many as 1596.

The Minimum Wages Act does not provide for any discrimination between male and female workers or different minimum wages for them. All the provisions of the Act equally apply to both male and female workers.

Norms for fixation/revision of minimum wages

The norms include those which were recommended by the Indian Labour Conference in its session held in 1957.

(a)          3 consumption units for one earner.

(b)          Minimum  food  requirements of  2700 calories  per average Indian adult.

(c)          Clothing requirements of 72 yards per annum per family.

(d)  Rent corresponding to the minimum area provided for under Government's Industrial Housing Scheme.

(e)    Fuel, lighting and other miscellaneous items of expenditure to constitute 20% of the total Minimum Wages.

Other parameters

(i) "Children education, medical requirement, minimum recreation including festivals/ceremonies and provision for old age, marriage etc. should further constitute 25% of the total minimum wage." This judgment was delivered by the Supreme Court of India in 1991 in the case of Reptakos Brett and Co. Vs. its workmen.

(ii)    Local conditions and other factors influencing the wage rate.

 

Methods for fixation/revision of minimum wages Fixation

Section 3 empowers appropriate Government to fix the minimum rates of wages in the scheduled employments.

Revision

Revise the Minimum rates at an appropriate interval not exceeding five years.

Procedure for Fixation/Revision

In Section 5 of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, two methods have been provided for fixation/revision of minimum wages. They are Committee method and Notification method.

Committee Method

Under this method, committees and sub-committees are set up by the appropriate Governments to hold enquiries and make recommendations with regard to fixation and revision of minimum wages, as the case may be.

Notification method

In this method, Government proposals are published in the Official Gazette for information of the persons likely to be affected thereby and specify a date not less than two months from the date of the notification on which the proposals will be taken into consideration.

After considering advice of the Committees/Sub-committees and all the representations received by the specified date in Notification method, the appropriate Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, fix/revise the minimum wage in respect of the concerned scheduled employment and it shall come into force on expiry of three months from the date of its issue.

 

Variable Dearness Allowance (VDA)

In order to protect the minimum wages against inflation, the Central Government has made provision of Variable Dearness Allowance (VDA) linked to Consumer Price Index Number for Industrial Workers (CPI – IW). As regards States Governments/Union Territory Administrations, 26 of them have made VDA as a component of minimum wages. Both Central and State Governments are revising the minimum wages in respect of these scheduled employments from time to time with 100% neutralization. Accordingly, VDA is revised periodically twice a year effective from 1st April and 1st October in the Central Sphere.

Enforcement

The enforcement of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948 is secured at two levels. While in the Central Sphere, the enforcement is secured through the Inspecting officers of the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) commonly designated as Industrial Relations Machinery (CIRM), the compliance in the State Sphere is ensured through the State Enforcement Machinery. They conduct regular inspections and in the event of detection of any case of non-payment or under-payment of minimum wages, they advise the employers to make payment of the shortfall of wages. In case of non-compliance, penal provisions prescribed in the Act are taken recourse to.

National Wage Policy

Though it is desirable to have a National Wage Policy it is difficult to conceive a concept of the same. The National Wage Policy has been discussed on many occasions in different fora. Because fixation of wages depends on a number of criteria like local conditions, cost of living and paying capacity also varies from State to State and from industry to industry, it would be difficult to maintain uniformity in wages. The Indian Labour Conference, held in November, 1985 expressed the following views-

 

"Till such time a national wage is feasible, it would be desirable to have regional minimum wages in regard to which the Central Government may lay down the guidelines. The Minimum Wages should be revised at regular periodicity and should be linked with rise in the cost of living"

Accordingly, the Government issued guidelines in July, 87 for setting up of Regional Minimum Wages Advisory Committees. These Committees renamed subsequently as Regional Labour Ministers' Conference, made a number of recommendations which include reduction in disparities in minimum wages in different states of a region, setting up of inter-state Coordination Council, consultation with neighbouring States while fixing/revising minimum wages etc.

Steps taken to reduce disparities Five Regional Committees

There is disparity in rates of minimum wags in various regions of the country. This is due to differences in socio-economic and agro-climatic conditions, prices of essential commodities, paying capacity, productivity and local conditions influencing the wage rate. The regional disparity in minimum wages is also attributed to the fact that both the Central and State Governments are the appropriate Government to fix, revise and enforce minimum wages in scheduled employments in their respective jurisdictions under the Act. To bring uniformity in the minimum wages of scheduled employments, the Union Government has requested the States to form regional Committees. At present there are five Regional Minimum Wages Advisory Committees in the country, which are as under: -

Region                                                       States/UTs covered

Eastern Region (6)                         West       Bengal,       Orissa,       Bihar,       Jharkhand,

Chhattisgarh and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

North Eastern Region (8)       Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya,

Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim.

Southern Region (6)                      Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu,

Pondicherry and Lakshadweep.

 

 

Northern Region (9)                       Punjab, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu &

Kashmir,  Haryana,   Uttar  Pradesh,  Uttarakhand, Delhi and Chandigarh.

Western Region (6)                        Maharashtra,    Gujarat,    Goa,    Madhya    Pradesh,

Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu.

National Floor Level Minimum Wage

In order to have a uniform wage structure and to reduce the disparity in minimum wages across the country, a concept of National Floor Level Minimum Wage was mooted on the basis of the recommendations of the National Commission on Rural Labour (NCRL) in 1991. Keeping in view the recommendation of NCRL and subsequent rises in price indices, the National Floor Level Minimum Wage was fixed at Rs.35/- per day in 1996. Keeping in view the rise in Consumer Price Index the Central Government raised the National Floor Level Minimum wage to Rs.40/- per day in 1998. Further to Rs.45/- w.e.f. 01.12.1999 and Rs. 50/- per day w.e.f. 01.09.2002.

Based on the norms suggested by the Working Group and its acceptance by the Central Advisory Board subsequently in its meeting held on 19.12.2003, the National Floor Level Minimum Wage was revised upwards to Rs.66/- per day with effect from 1.02.2004. On the basis of increase in the Consumer Price Index, the Central Government further revised the National Floor Level Minimum Wages from Rs.66/-to Rs.80/- per day with effect from 01.09.2007.

It is, however, clarified that the National Floor Level Minimum Wage, is a non-statutory measure to ensure upward revision of minimum wages in different in States/UT’s. Thus, the State Governments are persuaded to fix minimum wages such that in none of the scheduled employments, the minimum wage is less than National Floor Level Minimum Wage. This method has helped in reducing disparity among different rates of minimum wages to some extent.

 

 

To sum up, effective implementation of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, including that of the revision of minimum wages at national floor level minimum wage or higher; which primarily falls in the State sphere, is assiduously pursued by us through discussion, writing letters, personal interaction and visits to States, including the North-Eastern States. The State Governments are regularly asked to fix and revise minimum wages in scheduled employments to be at least at par with National Floor Level Minimum Wage of Rs.80/- per day as at present. What they actually do is in keeping with their respective paying capacity.

Recent Initiatives

Based on the recommendations of the Minimum Wages Advisory Board (MWAB) in its meeting held on 22.01.2008 and 26.06.2008, the Ministry of Labour & Employment has issued the Final Notification in the Gazette of India (Extra Ordinary) fixing the minimum rates of wages for workers employed in the scheduled employments “Employment of Sweeping and Cleaning” in the Central sphere at Rs.120/-, Rs. 150/- and Rs.180/- per day and for “Employment of Watch and Ward” (a) without arms at Rs.120/-, Rs.150/- and Rs.180/- per day and (b) with arms at Rs.140/-, Rs.170/- and Rs.200/- per day for Area ‘C’, ‘B’ and ‘A’ respectively and the Final Notifications in respect of revision of minimum rates of wages for workers engaged in the scheduled employments of “Construction” and “Loading and Unloading” in the Central sphere at Rs.120/-, Rs.150/- and Rs.180/- per day for unskilled workers to Rs.200/-, Rs.220/- and Rs.240/- per day for highly skilled workers in Area ‘C’,’B’ and ‘A’ respectively and for workers engaged in “Non-Coal Mines” in the Central sphere at Rs.120/- per day for unskilled Workers (Above Ground) to Rs.240/- per day for highly skilled workers (Below Ground).

 

 

LIST OF SCHEDULED EMPLOYMENTS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT UNDER THE

MINIMUM WAGES ACT, 1948

 

S. No

Name of Employment

1.

Agriculture

2.

Construction/Maintenance of Roads and Building Operations.

3

Maintenance of Buildings

4.

Construction and Maintenance of Runways.

5.

Gypsum mines.

6.

Barites mines.

7.

Bauxite mines.

8.

Manganese mines.

9.

China Clay mines.

10

Kyanite mines.

11

Copper mines.

12

Clay mines.

13

Stone mines.

14

White Clay mines.

15

Orchire mines.

16

Fire Clay mines.

17

Steatite (Soapstone and Talc) Mines.

18

Asbestos mines.

19

Chromite mines.

20

Quartzite Mines

21

Quartz mines

22

Silica mines.

23

Magnesite Mines

24

Graphite mines.

25

Felspar mines.

26

Red oxide mines.

27

Laterite mines.

28

Dolomite mines.

29

Iron Ore mines.

30

Granite mines.

31

Wolfram mines.

32

Magnetite mines.

33

Rock phosphate mines.

34

Hematite mines.

35

Marble and Calcite Mines.

36

Uranium mines

37

Mica mines.

38

Employment in Lignite Mines

39

Employment in Gravel Mines

40

Employment in the Slate   Mines

41

Employment in laying down of underground electric, wireless, radio, television, telephone,   telegraph   and   overseas   communication   cables   and   similar   other underground cabling, electric lines water supply lines and sewerage pipe lines.

 

 

 

42

Loading and Unloading in Railways Goods Shed

43

Stone Breaking and Stone Crushing

44

Employment in Sweeping and Cleaning

45

Employment in Watch and Ward

PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT, 1936

The Payment of Wages Act, 1936 was enacted to regulate payment of wages to workers employed in Industries and to ensure a speedy and effective remedy to them against illegal deductions and/or unjustified delay caused in paying wages to them. The existing wage ceiling under Payment of Wages Act, 1936, was fixed at Rs. 1600/- pm in 1982. With a view to enhance the wage ceiling to Rs. 6500/- p.m. for applicability of the Act, to empower the Central Government to further increase the ceiling in future by way of notification and to enhance the penal provisions etc., the Payment of Wages (Amendment) Act, 2005, which was passed by both Houses of Parliament, has been notified on 6.9.2005 as an Act 41 of 2005 by the Ministry of Law & Justice. Subsequently, the Ministry of Labour & Employment has issued the Notification No. S.O 1577(E) to make the Payment of Wages (Amendment) Act, 2005 effective from the 9 November 2005.

Further, in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (6) of Section 1 of the Act, the Central Government, on the basis of figures of the Consumer Expenditure Survey published by National Sample Survey Organization, has enhanced the wage ceiling, further, to Rs. 10,000/- per month vide gazette notification No. S.O. 1380 (E) dated 8th August, 2007.

Enforcement Machinery

The Central Government is responsible for the administration of the Act in railways, mines, oilfields and air transport services, while State Governments are responsible in factories and other industrial establishments. In respect of major ports, State Governments have appointed officers of the Central Industrial Machinery as Inspector for enforcing the Act.

 

 

Penal provisions

In respect of any of the contravention to the provisions of the Act like unauthorized deductions, delayed payments etc, the Act provides for various penal provisions against defaulting employer.

 

 

Question. 4Abbreviations
Answer.

 

A

AAFI
AAPSO
AASU
ABM
AC
ACC
AD
ADB
AERE
AGOC
AICC
AICTE
AIDS
AIFE
AIIMS
AIL
AIMPLB
AIR
AITUE
AM
ANC
APEC
APSC
ASEAN
ASLV
ASI
ASSOCHAM
ASWAC
ATS

Amateur Athletics Federation of India 
Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation
All Assam Students Union
Anti Ballistic Missile
Alternate Current / Ashok Chakra / Air Conditioner / Antarctic Club
Anxillary Cadet Core
Ano Domini (After the birth of Jesus)
Asian Development Bank .
Atomic Energy Research Establishment
Asian Games Organisation Committee
All India Congress Committee
All India Council of Technical Education
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
All India Football Federation
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Aeronautics India Limited
All India Muslim Personal Law Board
All India Radio (Broadcasting)
All India Trade Union Congress
Anti Meridian (Before Noon)
African National Congress
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
Army Postal Services Core
Association of South East Asian Nations
Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
Archaeological Survey of India
Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (India)
 Airborne Surveillance Warning and Control
Anti Tetanus Serum

 

 

B

BAMS
BARC
BBC
BC
BCG
BCCI
BEL
BENELUX
BHEL
BIFR

BIMSTEC
BIS
B Pharma
BSF

Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
British Broadcasting Corporation
Before Christ (Before the birth of Jesus)
Bacillus Calmette Guerin (Anti TB Vaccine)
Board of Control for Cricket in India
Bharat Electronics Limited
Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg
Bharat Heavy Electronics Limited
Board of Industrial Finance and Reconstruction (Formerly Industrial Reconstruction Finance Board)
Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation
Bureau of Indian Standards
Bachelor of Pharmacy
Border Security Force

C

CAD
CAG
CARE
CASE
CAT
CAZRI
CBI
CBSE
CCEA
CCS
C-DAC
CDMA
CDRI
CDS
CHOGM
CID
CIS
CISF
CITU
CNG
COD
COFEPOSA
CPO
CPRI
CRPF
CRR
CSIR
CSO
CTS
CVC

Command Area Development
Comptroller and Auditor General
Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere
Commission for Alternative Sources of Energy
Central Administrative Tribunal, Computerised Axial Tomography
 Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Central Bureau of Investigation
Central. Board of Secondary Education
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
Cabinet Committee on Security
Centre For Development of Advance Computing
Code Division Multiple Access
Central Drug Research Institute
Compulsory Deposit Scheme
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
Criminal Investigation Department
Commonwealth of Independent States
Central Industrial Security Force
, Centre of Indian Trade Unions
Compressed Natural Gas
Central Ordnance Depot
Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act 
Central Passport Organisation
Central Power Research Institute
Central Reserve Police Force
Cash Reserve Ratio
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Central Statistical Organisation
Computerised Tomography Scanner
Central Vigilance Commission

D

DDT
DFDR
DIG
D.Lit.
DM
DMK
DNA
DPAP
DPC
DPSA
DRDO
DTH
DVD

Dichloro Diphenyle Tri-chloroethane
'Digital Flight Data Recorder (Black box)'
Deputy Inspector General
Doctor of Literature
District Magistrate
Dravida Munetra Kazhagam
Di-oxyribo-Nucleic Acid
'Drought Prone Area Programme
Dabhol Power Company
Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft

Defence Research and Development Organisation 
Direct to Home
Digital Versatile Disk

 

 

E

EAS
ECD
ECG
EEC
EEG
ELISA
EMF
EPABX
EPZ
ERDA
ESMA
EVM
EXIM Bank

Employment Assurance Scheme
European Central Bank
Electro Cardiogram
European Economic Community
Electro Encephalogram
Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay 
Electromotive Force
Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange 
Export Processing Zone
Energy Research and Development Administration 
Essential Services Maintenance Act
Electronic Voting Machine
Export-Import Bank of India

F

FAO
FBI
FBTR
FCI
FDR
FERA
FEMA
FICCI
FIPB
FIR
FRS
FTII
FTZ

Food and Agriculture Organisation
Federal Bureau of Investigation (USA)
Fast Breeder Test Reactor
Food Corporation of India / Fertilizer Corporation of India 
Flight Data Recorder (Black Box)
Foreign Exchange Regulation Act
Foreign Exchange Management Act
Federation of India Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Foreign Investment Promotion Board
First Information Report
Fellow of the Royal Society
Films and Television Institute of India
Free Trade Zone

 

G

GAIL
GATT
GIC
GMT
GNLF
GNP
GPF
GPO
GPS
GSI

Gas Authority of India Limited
General Agreement on Tariff and Trade
General Insurance Corporation
Greenwich Mean Time
Gorkha National Liberation Front
Gross National Product
General Provident Fund
General Post Office
Global Positioning System
Geological Survey of India

H

HAC
HAL
HCF
HDFC
HIV
HMT
HUDCO
HYVS

Hindustan Aluminium Corporation
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Highest Common Factor
Housing Development Finance Corporation
Human Immuno-deficiency Virus
Hindustan Machine Tools
Housing and Urban Development Corporation
High Yield Variety Seeds

I

IAAI
lAC
IAEA
IARI
IBRD
ICAR
ICBM
ICC
ICFTU
ICICI
ICJ
ICMR
ICSI
IDA
IDBI
IDO
IDPL
IFA
IFCI
IFFI
IFFCO
IFTU
IIPA
lIS
IISCO
lIT
ILO
IMA
IMF
INGCA
INS
INSAT
INTELSAT
INTERPOL
INTUC
IOC
IPC
IPKF
IQ
IRBM
IRC
IRDA
IRDP
ISB
ISM
ISO
ISP
ISRO
IST
ITBP
ITDC
ITPO
ITO
ITUC

International Airport Authority of India
Indian Airlines Corporation
International Atomic Energy Agency
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Inter Continental Ballistic Missile
International Cricket Council
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited
International Court of Justice
Indian Council of Medical Research
Indian Company Secretaries Institute
International Development Agency
Industrial Development Bank of India
International Defence Organisation
Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited
Indian Football Association
Industrial Finance Corporation of India
International Film Festival of India
Indian Farmers Fertilizers Cooperative
International Federation of Trade Unions
Indian Institute of Public Administration
Indian Institute of Sciences
Indian Iron and Steel Company
Indian Institute of Technology
International Labour Organisation
Indian Military Academy
International Monetary Fund
Indira Gandhi Gallery for Culture and Art
Indian Naval Ship
Indian National Satellite
International Telecommunication Satellite
International Police Organisation
Indian National Trade Union Congress
International Olympic Committee / Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Penal Code
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Intelligence Quotient
Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile
International Red Cross
Insurance Regulatory Development Authority
Integrated Rural Development Programme
Indian Standard Bureau
Indian School of Mines
International Organisation for Standardisation
Internet Services Provider
Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Standard Time
Indo-Tibet Border Police
Indian Tourism Development Corporation
Indian Trade Promotion Organisation
International Trade Organisation
Indian Trade Union Congress

J

JMM

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha

K
KG

Kinder Garten

L

LASER
LIC
LLB
LLM
LMG
LoC
LoAC
LPG
LSD
LTTE

Light Amplification By Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Life Insurance Corporation of India
Bachelor of Law
Master of Law
Light Machine Gum
Line of Control (Pakistan)
Line of Actual Control (China)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Lysergic acid di-ethylamide
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam

M

MA
MASER
MBA
MBBS
MBT
MCA
MCC
MD
MFN
MI
MISA
MIT
MLA
MLC
MNC
MRCP
MRCS
MRTPC
MODVAT
Master of Arts
Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Master of Business Administration
Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Main Battle Tank
Monetary Compensatory Allowance / Master of Computer Application
Melbourne Cricket Club
Doctor of Medicine
Most Favoured Nation
Military Intelligence
Maintenance of Internal Security Act
Mechachusates Institute of Technology (USA)
Member of Legislative Assembly
Member of Legislative Council
Multi National Corporation
Member of Royal College of Physicians
Member of Royal College of Surgeons
Monopoly and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission
Modified Value Added Tax

 

N

NABARD
NACO
NAEP
NAFED
NAFTA
NAPP
NASA
NASDAQ
NASSCOM
NATO
NCW
NCCR
NCERT
NDA
NDDB
NDF
NEERI
NEFA
NEPA
NFDC
NFL
NHRC
NICO
NIDC
NIIT
NIMHANS
NITIE
NMDS
NMEP
NOIDA
NPC
NPP
NPT
NRDC
NREP
NRI
NSC
NSSO
NTC
NTPC
National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development
National AIDS Control Organisation
National Adult Education Programme
National Agricultural and Marketing Federation
North American Free Trade Agreement
Narora Atomic Power Plant
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA)
National Association of Security Dealer's Active Quotation
National Association of Software & Service Companies
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
National Commission for Women
National Council for Civil Right
National Council of Educational Research & Training
National Defence Academy
National Dairy Development Board (Anand, Gujarat)
National Defence Fund .
National Environment Engineering Research Institute
North-East Frontier Agency
National Environment Protection Authority
National Film Development Corporation
National Fertilizer Limited
National Human Rights Commission
New Information and Communication Order
National Industrial Development Corporation
National Institute of Information Technology
National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences
National Institute for Training in Industrial Engineering
National Missile Defence System (US)
National Malaria Eradication Programme
New Okhla Industrial Development Authority
National Productivity Council
National Population Policy
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
National Research and Development Corporation
National Rural Employment Programme
Non Resident Indian
National Security Council
National Sample Survey Organisation
National Textile Corporation
National Thermal Power Corporation

 

O

OGL
OIL
OK
ONGC
OPEC

Open General Licence
Oil India Limited
All Correct
Oil and Natural Gas Commission
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries

P

PCI
PCS
Ph. D
PIN
PLO
PM
POTA
PSLV
PTI
PRO
PTO
PVC
PVSM
PWD
PWG

Press Council of India
Provincial Civil Services
Doctor of 'Philosophy
Posial lndex Number
Palestine Liberation Organisation
Post Meridian / Prime Minister
Prevention of Terrorism Act
Polar. Satellite Launch Vehicle
Press Trust of India
Public Relations Officer
Please Turn Over
Poly Vinyl Chloride / Paramvir Chakra 
Param Vishisht Seva Medal
Public Work's Department
People's War Group

Q

QED
QEF
QEI
QMG

Quod Erat Demonstrandum (Which was to be proved)
Quod Erat Faciendum (Which was to be done)
Quod Erat Inveniendum (Which was to be found)
Quarter Master General

R

RADAR
RAW
R & D
RBI
RCC
RDX
RIMC
RMS
RLEGP
RNA
RPM
RSS
RTO
Radio Angle Direction and Range
Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Development
Reserve Bank of India
Reinforced Cement Concrete
Research Developed Explosive
Rashtriya Indian Military College
Railway Mail Service
Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme
Ribonucleic Acid
Revolutions Per Minute
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Regional Transport Officer

S

SAARC
SAC
SAFTA
SAI
SAIL
SAPTA
SARS
SC
SCI
SCOPE
SCRA
SDR
SEBI
SGPC
SHAR
SIDBI
SIS
SITA
SLV
SPCA
SPICMC
STARS
STD
STPI
SWAPO

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Space Application Centre
South Asian Free Trade Agreement
Sports Authority of India
Steel Authority of India Limited
South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Security Council/Supreme Court
Shipping Corporation of India
Standing Conference of Public Enterprises
Special Class Railway Apprentice
Special Drawing Rights
Security Exchange Board of India
Siromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee
Shri Harikota Range
Small Industries Development Bank of India
Secret Intelligence Service (U.K)
Suppression of .Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act
Satellite Launch Vehicle
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals
Society for the Promotion of Indian Classical music and culture
Satellite Tracking and Ranging Station
Subscribers Trunk Dialing
Software Technology Parks of India
South West African People's Organisation

T

TA
TC
TELCO
TELEX
TISCO
TNT
TOEFL
TRAI
TRIPS
TTE
TTFI
TWA
Travelling Aliowance / Territorial Anmy
Transfer Certificate, Trusteeship Council
Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company
Teleprinter Exchange
Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited 
Tri-nitro-toluene
Test of English as a Foreign Language 
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India 
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 
Travelling Ticket Examiner
Table Tennis Federation of India
Trans World Airlines (USA)

U

UDC
UFO
UGC
UHT
ULFA
UNCTAD
UNDP
UNEF
UNEP
UNESCO
UNFPA
UNHCR
UNI
UNICEF
UNO
UPS
UPSC
USP
USSR
UTI
Upper Division Clerk
Unidentified Flying Object
University Grants Commission
Ultra High Temperature
United Liberation Front of Assam
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Emergency Force
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Economic Social and Cultural Organisation
United Nations for Population Activities
United Nations High Commission for Refugees
United News of India
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
United Nations Organisation
Uninterrupted Power Supply
Union Public Service Commission
Unique Selling Proposition,
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
Unit Trust of India

V

VAT
VDIS
VC
VIP
VPP
VRS
VSNL
VSSC
Value Added Tax
Voluntary Disclosure of Income Scheme
Vice-Chancellor / Victoria Cross
Very Important Person
Value Payable Post
Voluntary Retirement Scheme
Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited 
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre

W

WEF
WHO
WILL
WMO
WWF
WPI
WTO
WWF
WWW

World Economic Forum
World Health Organisation
Wireless in Local Loop
World Meteorological Organisation
World Wild Life Fund
Wholesale Price Index
World Trade Organisation
World Wild Life Fund for Nature
World Wide Web

X

X-tian Christian

Y

YMCA
YWCA

Young Men's Christians Association
Young Women's Christians Association

 

ZBB
ZPG
ZS
ZSI

Zero Based Budgeting
Zero Population Growth
Zoological Society
Zoological Survey of India

 

Question. 5Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Answer.

 

 

Type of Organisation and Brief History
The Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmentalOrganisation, created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10-14, 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The five Founding Members were later joined by nine other Members : Qatar (1961); Indonesia (1962)—suspended its membership from January 2009; Libya (1962); United Arab Emirates (1967); Algeria (1969); Nigeria (1971); Ecuador (1973)—suspended its membership from December 1992–October 2007; Angola (2007) and Gabon (1975-1994), OPEC had its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in the first five years of its existence. This was moved to Vienna, Austria on September 1, 1965.

OPEC’s Objective and Mission

OPEC’s objective is to coordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry.

In accordance with its Statute, the mission of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is to coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its Member Countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consumers, a steady income to producers and a fair return on capital for those investing in the petroleum industry.

Member States
The Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded in Baghdad, Iraq, with the signing of an agreement in September 1960 by five countries namely Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. They were to become the Founder Members of the Organisation.

These countries were later joined by Qatar (1961), Indonesia (1962), Libya (1962), the United Arab Emirates (1967), Algeria (1969), Nigeria (1971), Ecuador (1973), Gabon (1975) and Angola (2007). 

From December 1992 until October 2007, Ecuador suspended its membership. Gabon terminated its membership in 1995. Indonesia suspended its membership effective January 2009. 

Currently, the Organisation has a total of 12 Member Countries.

The OPEC Statute distinguishes between the Founder Members and Full Members—those countries whose applications for membership have been accepted by the Conference.

OPEC Summit and the Solemn Declaration

Sovereigns and Heads of State of OPEC Member Countries (MCs) do not meet regularly. However, when they do meet, the impact is felt beyond the confines of the Organisation’s MCs and for decades too. Such meetings also have the tendency to affect lives in a positive way. 

This could be said to be the effect their first meeting in 1975 has had on the world’s poor countries through the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID). Established as a multilateral development finance institution to promote cooperation between Member States of OPEC and other developing countries, OFID was conceived at the Summit of the Sovereigns and Heads of State of the OPEC Member Countries (MCs) held in the Algerian capital, Algiers, in March 1975.

The Solemn Declaration, issued by the Summit, ‘reaffirmed the natural solidarity which unites OPEC MCs with other developing countries in their struggle to overcome underdevelopment, and called for measures to strengthen cooperation with these countries.”

OPEC Fund for International Development
OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) was established in January 1976, as a collective financial facility to consolidate the assistance extended by its Member Countries namely Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela. OFID’s resources are additional to those already made available by OPEC MCs through a number of bilateral and multilateral channels. The resources of OFID consist mainly of voluntary contributions by OPEC MCs and income derived from OFID’s investments and loans (interest and service charges).

OFID’s operations were launched in August 1976 with initial resources of about $ 800 million. This amount has since then been replenished three times. It has also been further increased by the profits accruing to seven OPEC Member Countries through the sale of gold held by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In the framework of grants, assistance is extended to social and humanitarian development operations through three regular grant programs; Technical Assistance, Research and Similar Activities and Emergency Relief Aid. OFID has also established special grant accounts to respond to specific global needs. These include grants for the establishment of the Common Fund for Commodities, in addition to a Special Account for HIV/AIDS Operations and a Special Account for Palestine. Intermittently, OFID extended special grants in support of contemporary issues, such as the grant for the establishment of IFAD and the food crisis in Africa. By the end of March 2010, 1,205 grants, amounting to $ 483 m, had been extended.

OPEC Reference Basket
Introduced on June 16, 2005, it is currently made up of the following : Saharan Blend (Algeria), Girassol (Angola), Oriente (Ecuador), Iran Heavy (Islamic Republic of Iran), Basra Light (Iraq), Kuwait Export (Kuwait), Es Sider (Libya), Bonny Light (Nigeria), Qatar Marine (Qatar), Arab Light (Saudi Arabia), Murban (UAE) and Merey (Venezuela). For example :
● As of January 2006 : The Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly and Yearly averages are based on daily quotations.
● As of January 2007 : The basket price includes the Angolan crude ‘Girassol’.
● As of October 19, 2007 : The basket price includes the Ecuadorean crude ‘Oriente’.
● As of January 2009 : The basket price excludes the Indonesian crude ‘Minas’.
● As of January 2009 : The Venezuelan crude ‘BCF-17’ was replaced by the crude ‘Merey’.

OPEC’s Oil Reserves
According to current estimates, more than 80% of the world’s proven oil reserves are located in OPEC member countries, with the bulk of OPEC oil reserves in the Middle East, amounting to 65% of the OPEC total. OPEC member countries have made significant additions to their oil reserves in recent years, for example, by adopting best practices in the industry, realizing intensive explorations and enhancing recoveries. As a result, OPEC’s proven oil reserves currently stand at well above 1,190 billion barrels. 29% of this total pump fuel price.

OPEC Upstream Capacity
● To ensure that the world economy benefits from regular and secure oil supplies, OPEC Member Countries continue to invest to expand upstream capacity. Over the period to 2014, according to OPEC’s projects database, around 140 projects are expected to come on-stream. These projects will result in net crude oil capacity additions of around 3•0 mb/d by the end of 2014. On top of this, over 2 mb/d of net NGL capacity additions is anticipated.
● To achieve these goals, OPEC is undertaking intensive investment plans.

OPEC Downstream Capacity
● The period 2004-2008, marked by rising oil prices, refining tightness and high margins, brought forward an increasing number of refining projects worldwide.
● Despite large uncertainties over future demand for refined products and the resulting requirements for refining capacity expansions, OPEC member countries continue with the implementation of several major refining projects aimed at supporting market stability.
● In concrete terms, recent Secretariat estimates show that OPEC member countries will expand their refining capacity by more than 2 mb/d by 2015. This includes around 1•5 mb/d of additional distillation capacity and another 0•6 mb/d capacity in condensate plants within the national borders, thus passing 10 mb/d of downstream capacity by 2015. Moreover, substantial investments are on the way as part of equity shares in refineries outside national borders.

Question. 6Describe Solar system.
Answer.

 

In the vastness of the Universe, the Earth, the Sun and planets are tiny dots. The Sun is a single star in a Galaxy comprising 100,000 million stars.

The Solar System is centred on the Sun. It consists of a star called the Sun and all the objects that travel around it. The Solar System includes : 9 planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto), along with the numerous satellites that travel around most of them; planet-like objects called asteroids (hundreds of asteroids); chunks of iron and stone called meteoroids; bodies of dust and foreign gases called comets (thousands of comets); and drifting particles called interplanetary dust and electrically charged gas called plasma that together make up the interplanetary medium.

The whole solar system by volume appears to be an empty void. This vacuum of ‘space’ comprises the interplanetary medium. The speed of the solar wind is about 400 kilometer per second in the vicinity of Earths' orbit.

The Solar System originated in a primitive solar nebula–a rotating disc of gas and dust. It is from this rotating disc that the planets and the rest of the Solar System evolved. The Solar System is also tucked away in a corner of the Milky Way at a distance of about 30,000 to 33,000 light years from the centre of the galaxy.

The Sun contains 99.85% of all the matter in the Solar System. The planets which condensed out of the same disk of material that formed the Sun, contains only 0.135% of the mass of the Solar System.

Jupiter contains more them twice the matter of all the other planets combined. Satellites of the planets, comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and the interplanetary medium constitute the remaining 0.015%.

 

THE PLANETS

The bodies revolving around the sun (at the same time rotating on their imaginary axis) are called planets. They have no light of their own but shine by radiating the fight they receive from the sun. They all revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits. Until about 200 years ago only six planets were known. Three more planets were discovered later, the latest being Pluto (discovered in 1930). Nine planets can now be identified.

Mercury
Mercury is the planet nearest to the sun. It rotates on its own axis in 56.65 earth days. It takes 88 days to complete one revolution round the sun. Thus it is the fastest planet in our solar system.

Venus
Also known as the evening star and morning star, is the brightest object in the sky after the sun and the moon. It is slightly smaller than the earth and is the planet closest to the earth. It is also the hottest planet in our solar system and has a weak magnetic belt.

Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the sun and is the next planet after the earth. Being favorably situated, it is brighter than most of the stars and, is therefore, known as the Red Planet. It has two small satellites called Phobos (Fear) and Deimos (Terror).

Jupiter
Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. It is about eleven times larger than the earth. Its volume is one and half times the volume of all the planets combined together. The most conspicuous aspect about Jupiter is its Great Red Spot. It is also known as the giant planet because of its huge size.

Saturn
Saturn is an outer planet visible to the naked eye. Second in size to Jupiter, it is the least dense of all the planets. The most spectacular feature of Saturn is its system of rings. The ring system is made up of a variety of separate particles which move independently in circular orbits. It has 46 satellites. Titan is its biggest.

Uranus
Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun and is not visible to the naked eye. It was identified as a planet in 1781 by William Herchel. It has completed only two revolutions round the sun since its discovery, and takes about 84 terrestrial years to circle round the sun. It has 27 satellites.

Neptune
Neptune is not visible to the naked eye but can be seen through a small telescope as a greenish star. It is eighth in position from the sun. This planet was discovered by J.G. Galle of Berlin in 1846. Till 1930, it was believed to be the farthest planet from the sun and the outermost in our solar system. It has eight satellites, and Triton and Nereid are the most con­spicuous of them.

Pluto
Pluto is the youngest planet to be discovered in our solar system. It was discovered photographically by C.W. Tombaugh (USA) in 1930. It is the smallest planet in our solar system; slightly smaller than Mercury and visible only through a tele­scope. The duration of its revolution round the sun is the longest and it is, therefore, the slowest planet in our solar system.

 

SATELLITES

Satellite are bodies which revolve around the planets. All planets have one or more satellites, except Mercury and Venus. The moon is the earth's natural satellite. There are approximately 62 satel­lites in our solar system.

In August 1989, the US Space probes Voyager-1 and Voyager-2 revealed six new satellites around Neptune which was earlier believed to have only two satellites.

The Moon
The moon is the earth's natural satellite and is its nearest neighbour in space. It revolves around the earth while rotating on its own axis. Only 59% of its surface is directly visible from the earth. Of all satellites in the solar system, the moon is the largest in proportion to its primary body, that is, the earth. All other satellites have sizes below 1/8 the size of the mother planet. The moon is about 1/4 the size of its mother planet, the earth. It takes about 1.3 seconds for moonlight to reach the earth, whereas sunlight takes about 8 minutes and 16.6 seconds to reach the earth.

The moon takes 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes and 11.47 seconds to complete one revolution of the earth. It rotates on its axis in exactly the same time. Hence, we see only one side of the moon.

 

THE EARTH

Modern theories on the formation of the Earth and other planets are of course based on the Copernican theory.

The age of the Earth was a matter of speculation till very recent times. It was only about 200 years ago, that scientific enquiries were started by geologists. According to their deductions, based on the study of rocks, the age of the Earth is 4.6 billion years.

Our knowledge of the internal structure of the Earth is derived from studies of earthquakes. The shock waves sent out by an earthquake indicate the physical nature of the regions through which they pass. These studies show that the centre of the Earth is a solid core–the Inner Core. The density of this core is about 13 g to the cubic centimeter. The Inner Core is about 1,370 km thick and is surrounded by an Outer Core of around 2,080 km. The Outer Core appears to be molten.

The Outer Core is surrounded by the Mantle which has a thickness of around 2,900 km. The Mantle is topped by the crust of the Earth, which varies widely in thickness–from 12 to 60 km. At the centre or the Inner Core, that is at a depth of some 6,370 km, temperature goes upto some 4,000°C and pressure reaches nearly 4 million at mospheres.

The mantle is important in many ways. It accounts for nearly half the radius of the Earth (2,900 km), 83% of its volume and 67% of its mass. The dynamic processes which determine the movements of the crust plates are powered by the mantle.

Starting at an average depth of from 45 to 56 km below the top surface of the Earth, the mantle continues to a depth of 2,900 km where it joins the outer core. The mantle is a shell of red hot rock and separates the Earth's metallic and partly melted core (both the inner and the outer cores) from the cooler rocks of the Earth's crust.

It is composed of sllicate minerals rich in magnesium and Iron. The density of the mantle in­creases with depth from about 3.5 gram per cubic centimetre to around 5.5 gram, near the outer core.

The outer surface of the Earth is divided into 4 spheres:
Lithosphere means the entire top crust of the Earth and includes not only the land surface but also the ocean floor.
Hydrosphere is the water sur­face which includes the oceans, lakes and rivers. 
Atmosphere is the blanket of air that envelops the Earth. It covers both the land surface and the water surface.
Biosphere is this sphere of life which spreads over all the three other spheres.

Earth's Movements
The earth has two types of move­ments, viz. rotation or daily motion and revolution or annual motion.
The earth spins on its own im­aginary axis from west to east once in 24 h (in precisely 23 h 56 min and 40.91 s). It is also called diurnal or daily motion. The axis is an imaginary line which runs form north to south and passes through the centre of the earth. It always remains in­clined at an angle of 66½° to the plane of the earth's orbit.

Effects of Rotation:
(i) Occurrence of day and night.
(ii) The position of a place on earth can be fixed.
(iii) Change in the direction of wind and ocean currents.

 

ECLIPSES

When the light of the sun or the moon is obscured by another body the sun or moon is said to be in eclipse.

Lunar Eclipse: The moon is said to be in eclipse when the earth comes between the moon and the sun, and this is called Lunar eclipse. The shadow cast by the earth on the moon is called an eclipse. 
Lunar eclipse occurs only on a full moon day. However, it does not occur on every full moon day because the moon is not in the same position in relation to the earth and the sun on every full moon day.

Solar Eclipse: The sun is said- to be in eclipse when the moon comes between the sun and the earth. This is called Solar eclipse. There is either a partial or total obstruction of the sun's light when viewed from the earth. A solar eclipse occurs on a new moon day when the moon is in line with the sun. However, due to the inclination of the moon's orbit, a solar eclipse does not occur on every new moon day.

 

ATMOSPHERE

The atmosphere is a gaseous en­velope that surrounds a celestial body. The terrestrial atmosphere, by nature of its composition, control of temperature and shielding effect against solar radiation, makes life possible on earth. It covers both the land and the water surface. It is bound to the earth by the gravitational pull of the earth. The composition of the atmosphere changes as we go higher from the earth's surface. Upto about a height of 50 km from the earth, the atmosphere is composed of:
Nitrogen 78.09%
Oxygen 20.95%
Argon 0.93%
Minor gases (Carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, helium, methane, xenon, krypton, etc.) 0.03%

After a height of 50 km above the earth's surface the atmosphere is made up of atomic oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), helium and hydrogen.

Atmospheric Layers
These are the layers of air that lie above the earth's surface. The atmosphere of the earth is arranged into layers as accrued below, viz.

Troposphere: The troposphere is the layer nearest to the earth's surface and extends from sea-level to a height of about 15 km. This region is the densest of all the atmospheric layers and contains water vapour, moisture and dust. In this region the temperature decreases as the height increases from the earth.

Tropopause: Tropopause is the layer which separates the troposphere (lowest layer) from the stratosphere (upper layer).

Stratosphere: This is the region of uniform temperature extending from an altitude of about 15km above the earth to a height of about 50 kill. It is free from water vapour, clouds and dust.

Mesosphere: This is a very cold region and lies above the ozone-rich layer of the stratosphere. It extends from 50 or 80 km above the earth's surface.

Menopause: The Menopause separates the mesosphere from the next layer called the ionosphere.

Ionosphere: The ionosphere lies immediately above the mesosphere and extends from 60 to 400 km above the earth's surface. This layer contains ionised (or electrically charged) air which protects the earth from the falling meteorites (shooting stars) as most of them burn out in this region. It also protects the earth from the harmful radiations of the sun. The ionosphere consists of ‘D’, ‘E’ and ‘F’ layers and includes the thermosphere and exosphere. 

Thermosphere: This is the middle layer of the ionosphere. It is the region of the atmosphere where the temperature is above 100°C.

Exosphere: The exosphere is the uppermost region of the ionosphere and makes up the outer limits of the atmosphere. Here the gravity of the earth is exceedingly weak. The magnetic belt of the earth which is known as Magnetosphere, extends to about 64,000 km above the earth's surface. The exosphere is now considered as part of the magnetosphere. The outer boundary of the magnetosphere or the final boundary between the earth and outer space is known its magnetopause.

The land surface of the earth is made up of immense land masses divided into seven continents and a great number of islands. Together, they cover about one quarter of the earth's surface.

It is believed that originally there was only one land mass called Pangaea. This large land mass split into a northern mass Laurasia and a southern one called Gondwana Land. From these two land masses, the continents gradually drifted to where they are now located and the process is still continuing.

 

Question. 7First in the World
(First in the World)
Answer.

 

 1. Chairman of Peoples Republic of China Mao-Tse-Tung
2. President of the Chinese Republic Dr. Sun Yat Sen
 3. President of U.S.A George Washington
 4. Chinese Traveller to India Fahein
 5. Foreign Invader to India Alexander the Great
 6. Person to reach South Pole Amundsen
 7. Person to reach North Pole Robert Pearey
 8. Person in Space Yuri Gagarin
 9. Person on Moon Neil Armstrong
 10. Lady to climb Mount Everest Junko Taibei
 11. European to visit China Marco Polo
12. Place where atom bomb was dropped Hiroshima

 

13. Man to walk in Space Alexei Leonov
 14. Woman cosmonaut in Space Valentina Tereshkova
 15. Woman Prime Minister of a country Mrs. Srimavo Bhandarnaike
16. Woman President of a country Maria Estela Peron
 17. Woman to Command a Space Mission Colonel Eileen Collins (U.S.A.)
 18. The first residents of International Space station Bill Shepherd (USA)
Yuri Gidzanko 
and Sergei Krikalev (Russia)
 19.  The first blind man to scale Mt. Everest Erik Weihenmayer (USA, May 25, 2001)
 20. The first Muslim woman to become the Secretary General of Amnesty International lrine Zubeida Khan
 21. The first space astronaut to go into space seven times till date Jerry Ross (U.S.A.)
 22. The first South African to become the second space tourist Mark Shuttleworth
 23. The first woman Prime Minister of South Korea Ms. Chang Sang
 24. The first youngest grandmaster of the world in chess Sergey Karjakin (Ukraine)
 25. The first adventurer flying successfully across the English Channel without aircraft Felix Baumgartner (July 2003)
 26. China's first man in space Yang Liwei
 27. The first Muslim woman to receive Nobel Prize Shirin Ebadi (Nobel Peace Prize 2003)
 28. The woman with the highest individual Test score making a new world record Kiran Baloch (Pakistani cricketer, 
scoring 242 runs playing women's 
cricket test against West Indies in Karachi in March, 2004)
 29. The first woman of the world to climb Mt. Everest four times Lakpa Sherpa (Nepali)
30. The first woman to cross seven important seas of the world by swimming Bula Chaudhury (India)
31. The first aircraft pilot to round the entire world non-stop by his 2 engine aircraft in 67 hours Steve Fossett (March 2005)
32. The first woman to be appointed as a Governor of a province in Afghanistan Habiba Sorabhi
33. The first woman of the world to swim across five continents  Bula Chaudhury (India) (April 2005)
34. The first woman athlete to touch 5.0 meter mark in pole vault Ms. Yelena Isinbayeva 
(Russian, July 2005)
35. The first Hindu Chief Justice of Pakistani Supreme Court Justice Rana Bhagwan Das
Took over on Sept. 2, 2005 as 
Acting Chief Justice
36. The first duly elected woman President of an African country Allen Johnson Sirleaf (elected 
President of Liberia in Nov. 2005)
37. The first woman Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan Shanshad Akhtar 
(Appointed in Dec. 2005)
38. The first woman Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel 
(Took over in Nov. 2005)
39. The first woman President of Chile Dr. Michelle Bachelet
40. The first woman Prime Minister of Jamaica Portia Simpson Miller (Feb. 2006)
41. The first woman foreign Secretary of England Margaret Backett (May 2006)
42. The first double amputee to scale Mt. Everest Mark Inglis (May 15, 2006)
 

 

Question. 8Heads of Important Offices in World 2012
(UN.IMF,RBI,USA)
Answer.
  1. Ban Ki-moon : Secretary-General, United Nations Organisation.
  2. Ms. Asha-Rose Migiro : First Deputy Secretary-General, UN.
  3. Robert Zoellick : President, World Bank.
  4. Christine Lagarde: Managing Director, International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  5. Ms. Irina Bokova: Director-General-UNESCO.
  6. Dr. Margaret Chan: Director-General, WHO.
  7. Jose Graziano da Silva : Director-General, Food and Agricultural Organisation. (w.e.f. January 2012)
  8. Juan Somavia : Director-General, International Labour Organisation.
  9. Anthony Lake : Executive Director, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF).
  10. Antonio Guterres : UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
  11. Helen Clark : Administrator, United Nations Development Programme.
  12. Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi : Secretary-General, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
  13. Angel Gurria : Secretary-General, Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
  14. Hisashi Owada: President, International Court of Justice. 
  15. Haruhiko Kuroda: President, Asian Development Bank.
  16. Donald Kaberuka : President, African Development Bank.
  17. Jacques Rogge: President, International Olympic Committee.
  18. Kamalesh Sharma: Secretary-General, Commonwealth.
  19. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo : Chairman, African Union Assembly.
  20. Jean Ping : Chairman, African Commission.
  21. Pascal Lamy : Director-General, WTO.
  22. Ms. Navanethan Pillay : High Commissioner, UN High Commission for Human Rights.
  23. Herman Van Rompuy : President, European Union
  24. Sharad Pawar: President, International Cricket Council.
  25. Jose Manuel Durao Barroso: President, European Commission.
  26. Kandeh K. Yumkella : Director-General, UNIDO.
  27. Abdul-Rahman bin Hamad Al-Attiyah: Secretary-General, Gulf Co-operation Council.
  28. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu : Secretary-General, Organisation of Islamic Conference. 
  29. Abdallah Salem el-Badri: Secretary-General, Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
  30. Jose Miguel Insulza Salinas: Secretary-General, Organisation of American States.
  31. Hifikepunye Pohamba : President, South-West African People's Organisation (SWAPO).
  32. Mr. Yukiya Amano : Director- General, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  33. Anders Fogh Rasmussen : Secretary-General, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
  34. Hashim Abdul Halim : Chairman, Commonwealth Parliamentary Association.
  35. Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin : Executive Director, UNFPA. 
  36. Dr. Surin Pitsuwan : Secretary-General, ASEAN.
  37. Ms. Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed : Secretary-General, SAARC 
  38. Lamine Diack : President, International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF).
  39. Charles F. Bolden, Jr. : Chief of NASA (USA).
  40. Salil Shetty: Secretary-General, Amnesty International.
  41. Lt.-Gen.Chikadibia Obiakor: Military Adviser to UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations.
  42. Hosni Mubarak: Secretary-General, Non-Aligned Movement.
  43. Burchell Whiteman, O.J. : Director, Commonwealth of Learning.
  44.  
Question. 9Heads of Important Offices in India 2012
(who is who)
Answer.
  1. Dr. Manmohan Singh: Chairman, Planning Commission.
  2. Ms. Meira Kumar: Speaker, Lok Sabha.
  3. Mohammad Hamid Ansari: Chairman, Rajya Sabha.
  4. Mr. K. Rahman Khan: Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha.
  5. Mr. Karia Munda: Deputy Speaker, Lok Sabha.
  6. Mrs. Sushma Swaraj : Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha).
  7. Mr. Arun Jaitley: Leader of Opposition (Rajya Sabha).
  8. Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia: Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission.
  9. Mr. S. Y. Quraishi: Chief Election Commissioner
  10. Mr. V. S. Sampath : Election Commissioner.
  11. Mr. Harishankar Brahma : Election Commissioner.
  12. Mr. Vinod Rai : Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
  13. Mr. Justice K. G. Balakrishnan : Chairperson, National Human Right Commission (NHRC)
  14. Mr. K. M. Chandrasekhar: Cabinet Secretary.
  15. Mr. T. K. A. Nair : Principal Secretary to Prime Minister .
  16. Mr. Justice M. N. Rao: Chairman, National Commission for Backward Classes.
  17. Ms. Shanta Sinha: Chairperson, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
  18. Dr. Buta Singh: Chairman, National Commission for Scheduled Castes
  19. Ms. Urmila Singh: Chairman, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
  20. Prof. D. P. Agrawal: Chairman, UPSC.
  21. Dr. M. S. Swaminathan : Chairman, National Commission on Farmers (NCF).
  22. Mr. Shiv Shankar Menon: National Security Adviser and Special Adviser to PM (Internal Security).
  23. Mr. S. C. Sinha : Director-General, National Investigation Agency (NIA).
  24. Mr. S. S. Khurana: Chairman, Railway Board.
  25. Mr. Vivek Kumar Agnihotri: Secretary-General, Rajya Sabha
  26. Mr. T. K. Viswanathan : Secretary-General, Lok Sabha.
  27. Mr. Nehchal Sandhu: Director, IB.
  28. Mr. A. P. Singh: Director, CBI.
  29. Mr. Sanjeev Tripathi: Director, Research and Analysis Wing.
  30. Mr. R. K. Medhekar : Director-General, NSG.
  31. Mr. Vijay Kumar : Director-General, CRPF.
  32. Mr. U. K. Bansal : Director-General, Border Security Force (BSF).
  33. Mr. Rajiv : Director-General, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF).
  34. Mr. P.K. Mehta: Director-General, Railway Protection Force.
  35. Mr. Ranjit Sinha: Director-General, Indo-Tibetan Border Police.
  36. Mr. Pranay Sahay : Director-General, Sashastra Seema Bal.
  37. Vice-Admiral M. P. Muralidharan: Director-General, Indian Coast Guard.
  38. Lt. Gen. Avtar Singh: Director-General, Defence Intelligence Agency.
  39. Prof. Ved Prakash : Chairman, UGC.
  40. Mr. V. K. Saraswat : Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Defence Research & Development Organisation.
  41. Dr. R. Chidambaram : Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government.
  42. Mr. K. Radhakrishnan: Chairman, Space Commission and ISRO.
  43. Mr. Srikumar Banerjee : Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Dept. of Atomic Energy.
  44. Mr. Wajahat Habibullah: Chairperson, National Commission for Minorities.
  45. Mr. Satyanand Mishra : Chief Information Commissioner.
  46. Mr. N. K. Raghupathy : Chairman, SSC.
  47. Dr. Vishwa Mohan Katoch : Director-General, Indian Council of Medical Research.
  48. Mr. C. Chandramouli : Registrar-General of India and Census Commissioner.
  49. Mr. P. V. Reddy : Chairman, Law Commission.
  50. Mr. Baldev Raj : President, Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE).
  51. Mr. Justice (Retd.) B. N. Kirpal: Chairman, National Forest Commission.
  52. Dr. Amrita Patel: Chairperson, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
  53. Lt. Gen. M. C. Badhani : Director-General, Border Roads Organisation.
  54. Mr. Duvvuri Subbarao : Governor, RBI.
  55. Mr. Justice G. N. Ray: Chairman, Press Council of India.
  56. Mr. Sam Balsara : Chairman, Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).
  57. Mr. Laxman Das : Chairperson, Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT).
  58. Mr. A. K. Singh: Chairman, Central Board of Excise & Customs.
  59. Justice Arijit Pasayat : Chairperson, Competition Appellate Tribunal
  60. Mr. S. K. Garg : CMD, NHPC.
  61. Mr. R. S. Sharma: CMD, ONGC.
  62. Mr. U. D. Choubey : CMD, GAIL.
  63. Mr. S. Behuria : Chairman, IOC.
  64. Mr. N. M. Borah: CMD, Oil India Ltd.
  65. Mr. Ashok Ganguly: Chairman, CBSE.
  66. Mr. U. K. Sinha: Chairman, Securities & Exchange Board of India.
  67. Mr. Prakash Bakshi: Chairman, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).
  68. Mr. Pratip Chaudhuri : Chairman, SBI.
  69. Mr. V. P. Shetty : Chairman, IDBI.
  70. Mr. S. Balasubramanian : Chairman, Company Law Board.
  71. Mr. Hardeep Singh Puri : India's Permanent Representative to UN.
  72. Mr. T. S. Vijayan : Chairman, LIC
  73. Mr. A. K. Bajaj : Chairman, Central Water Commission.
  74. Ms. Mamta Sharma : Chairperson, National Commission for Women.
  75. Dr. Vijay L. Kelkar: Chairman, 13th Finance Commission.
  76. Prof. Suresh D. Tendulkar : Chairman, National Statistical Commission.
  77. Ms. Shafmila Tagore : Chairperson, Central Board of Film Certification.
  78. Dr. Gautam Sengupta : Director-General, Archaeological Survey of India.
  79. Mr. R. V. Kanoria : President, FICCI.
  80. Mr. J. S. Sarma: Chairman, TRAI 
  81. Mr. R. N. Das : Director, Enforcement Directorate.
  82. Mr. Yogesh Agarwal: Chairman, Pension Fund Regulatory & Development Authority.
  83. Mr. Pradeep Kumar: Central Vigilance Commissioner (CVC).
  84. Dr. Ratan Kumar Sinha : Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
  85. Mr. Suresh Kalmadi : President, Indian Olympic Association.
  86. Prof. Krishan Kumar: Director, NCERT.
  87. Mr. Hari S. Bharti: President, CII. 
  88. Mr. Sam Pitroda : Chairman, National Knowledge Commission.
  89. Mr. Rajiv Takru : CEO, Prasar Bharti Board.
  90. Mr. Ratan Tata : Chairman, Investment Commission.
  91. Mr. N. Srinivasan : President, Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).
  92. Mr. Rajendra Pawar : Chairman, NASSCOM.
  93. Mr. Rajkumar Dhoot : President, ASSOCHAM.
  94. Mr. Ramesh Sippy : Chairman, National Film Development Corporation (NFDC).
  95. Mr. Ravindra Kumar: Chairman, United News of India.
  96. Mr. N. Ravi : Chairman, PTI.
  97. Mr. Hormusji N. Cama: President, Indian Newspaper Society.
  98. Mr. Dilip Modi : President, The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM).
  99. Mr. Vinod Rai : Chairman, Asian Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (ASOSAI)
Question. 10What factors determine interest rates?
(MAB NOTES)
Answer.

 

When we talk of interest rates, there are different types of interest rates -rates that banks offer to their depositors, rates that they lend to their borrowers,     the     rate     at     which     the     Government     borrows     in     the

 

 

Bond/Government Securities market, rates offered to investors in small savings schemes like NSC, PPF, rates at which companies issue fixed deposits etc.

The factors which govern these interest rates are mostly economy related and are commonly referred to as macroeconomic factors. Some of these factors are:

  1. Demand for money
  2. Level of Government borrowings
  3. Supply of money
  4. Inflation rate
  5. The   Reserve   Bank   of   India   and   the   Government   policies   which determine some of the variables mentioned above

What are various options available for investment?

Question. 11What is meant by Interest?
(MAB NOTES)
Answer.

 

When we borrow money, we are expected to pay for using it – this is known as Interest. Interest is an amount charged to the borrower for the privilege of using the lender’s money. Interest is usually calculated as a percentage of the principal balance (the amount of money borrowed). The percentage rate may be fixed for the life of the loan, or it may be variable, depending on the terms of the loan.

What factors determine interest rates?

Question. 12What care should one take while investing?
(MAB NOTES)
Answer.

 

Before making any investment, one must ensure to:

1.     obtain written documents explaining the investment

2.     read and understand such documents

3.     verify the legitimacy of the investment

4.     find out the costs and benefits associated with the investment

5.     assess the risk-return profile of the investment

6.     know the liquidity and safety aspects of the investment

7.     ascertain if it is appropriate for your specific goals

8.     compare these details with other investment opportunities available
 

9.     examine if it fits in with other investments you are considering or you have already made

10.  deal only through an authorised intermediary

11.  seek all clarifications about the intermediary and the investment
 

12.  explore the options available to you if something were to go wrong, and then, if satisfied, make the investment.

These are called the Twelve Important Steps to Investing.

What is meant by Interest?

Question. 13When to start Investing?
(MAB NOTES)
Answer.

 

The sooner one starts investing the better. By investing early you allow your investments more time to grow, whereby the concept of compounding (as we shall see later) increases your income, by accumulating the principal and the interest or dividend earned on it, year after year. The three golden rules for all investors are:

1.       Invest early

2.       Invest regularly

3.       Invest for long term and not short term

 

What care should one take while investing?

Question. 14Why should one invest?
(MAB NOTES)
Answer.

 

One needs to invest to:

1.       earn return on your idle resources

2.       generate a specified sum of money for a specific goal in life

3.       make a provision for an uncertain future

One of the important reasons why one needs to invest wisely is to meet the cost of Inflation. Inflation is the rate at which the cost of living increases. The cost of living is simply what it costs to buy the goods and services you need to live. Inflation causes money to lose value because it will not buy the same amount of a good or a service in the future as it does now or did in the past. For example, if there was a 6% inflation rate for the next 20 years, a Rs. 100 purchase today would cost Rs. 321 in 20 years. This is why it is important to consider inflation as a factor in any long-term investment strategy. Remember to look at an investment's 'real' rate of return, which is the return after inflation. The aim of investments should be to provide a return above the inflation rate to ensure that the investment does not decrease in value. For example, if the annual inflation rate is 6%, then the investment will need to earn more than 6% to ensure it increases in value. If the after-tax return on your investment is less than the inflation rate, then your assets have actually decreased in value; that is, they won't buy as much today as they did last year.

When to start Investing?

Question. 15What is Investment?
(fiancial management notes,MBA notes)
Answer.

 

The money you earn is partly spent and the rest saved for meeting future expenses. Instead of keeping the savings idle you may like to use savings in order to get return on it in the future.   This is called Investment.

 

also see  Why should one invest?

Question. 16Important Financial Abbreviations
(Finance)
Answer.

 

  1. NSE- National Stock Exchange of India Ltd.
  2. ß SEBI - Securities Exchange Board of India
  3. ß NCFM - NSE’s Certification in Financial Markets
  4. ß NSDL - National Securities Depository Limited
  5. ß C DSL - Central Depository Services (India) Limited 
  6. ß NCDEX - National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Ltd.
  7. ß NSCCL - National Securities Clearing Corporation Ltd.
  8. ß FMC – Forward Markets Commission
  9. ß NYSE- New York Stock Exchange
  10. ß AMEX - American Stock Exchange 
  11. ß OTC- Over-the-Counter Market 
  12. ß LM – Lead Manager
  13. ß IPO- Initial Public Offer
  14. ß DP - Depository Participant
  15. ß DRF - Demat Request Form
  16. ß RRF - Remat Request Form 
  17. ß NAV – Net Asset Value
  18. ß EPS – Earnings Per Share
  19. ß DSCR - Debt Service Coverage Ratio
  20. ß S&P – Standard & Poor
  21. ß IISL - India Index Services & Products Ltd
  22. ß CRISIL- Credit Rating Information Services of India Limited
  23. ß CARE - Credit Analysis & Research Limited 
  24. ß ICRA - Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India
  25. ß ISC – Investor Service Cell
  26. ß IPF – Investor Protection Fund
  27. ß SCRA - Securities Contract (Regulation) Act
  28. ß SCRR – Securities Contract (Regulation) Rules
Question. 17what is ambient intelligence?
(AI,CS,IT)
Answer.

 

 

 

 

 

AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE RECENT TRENDS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:

 

Information Technology has proved to be one of the powerful medium in the area of communication, security, reducing the work force of humans etc.  Technology has seen rapid improvement since a decade.  Ambient Intelligence is one of the prominent area in information technology which has seen a phenomenal growth since recent past.   

Ambient Intelligence is a vision where humans are surrounded by computing and networking technology unobtrusively embedded in their surroundings. The  objective  of  Ambient Intelligence or AmI  is  to  broaden  the  interaction  between  human  beings  and  digital information  technology  through  the  usage  of  ubiquitous  computing  devices.

Ambient Intelligence builds on three recent key technologies: Ubiquitous Computing,  Ubiquitous  Communication  and  Intelligent  User  Interfaces  –  some  of these  concepts  are  barely  a  decade  old  and  this  reflects  on  the  focus  of  current implementations of AmI. Ubiquitous Computing means integration of microprocessors  into  everyday  objects  like  furniture,  clothing,  white  goods,  toys, even  paint.  Ubiquitous Communication enables these objects to communicate with each other and the user by means of ad-hoc and wireless networking. An Intelligent User Interface enables the inhabitants of the AmI environment to control and interact with   the   environment   in   a   natural   (voice,   gestures)   and   personalized   way (preferences, context).

This paper explains how the Ambient Intelligence works, Applications, benefits, Security Mechanism and finally deals with the Home Security Systems architecture.

 

 

1. INTRODUCATION TO AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE:

            Ambient Intelligence   is  to  broaden  the  interaction  between  human  beings  and  digital information  technology  through  the  usage  of  ubiquitous  computing  devices.   Conventional computing  primarily  involves  user  interfaces  (UIs)  such  as  keyboard,  mouse,  and  visual display unit; while the large amount of ambient space that encompasses the user is not utilized as  it  could  be.   AmI  on  the  other  hand  uses  this  space  in  the  form  of,  for  example,  shape, movement,  scent  and  sound  recognition  or  output.  Sensors  would  adapt  to  a  homeowner through  sound,  scent,  shape,  and  movement. 

These information media become possible through new types of interfaces and will allow for drastically simplified and more intuitive use of devices. The  combination  of  simplified  use  of  devices  and  their  ability  to  communicate eventually results in increased efficiency for the users and, therefore, creates value, leading to a  higher  degree  of  ubiquity  of  computing  devices.

Ambient Intelligence builds on three recent technologies:

·         UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING

·         UBIQUITOUS  COMMUNICATION

·         USER ADAPTIVE INTERFACES

1.1 UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING:

            “Ubiquitous computing”, referring to omnipresent computers that serve people in their everyday lives at home and at work, functioning invisibly and unobtrusively in the background and freeing people to a large extent from tedious routine tasks. The general working definition of ubiquitous computing technology is any computing technology that permits human interaction away from a single workstation. This includes pen-based technology, hand-held or portable devices, large-scale interactive screens, wireless networking infrastructure, and voice or vision technology.

 

 

 

1.1.1 TECHNICAL FEATURES:

There are several technical features that must have a ubiquitous computing system.

  • Terminal and user interface issues
  • Low cost devices
  • High bandwidth
  • ‘Invisible’ file systems
  • Automatic installation
  • Personalize information
  • Privacy issues

 

1.2 UBIQUITOUS COMMUNICATION:

 

It enables flexible communication between interlinked devices that can be stationed in various locations or can even be portable.

 

  The following list presents different wireless technologies:  

 

  • Wireless LAN (W-LAN) applications per standard IEEE 802.11b offer high-speed transfer.
  • Bluetooth technology is used in today's handheld applications like cellular phones or personal digital assistants
  • Wireless body area networks (BANs) interlink various wearable devices, such as wireless data glasses, earpieces, microphones, and sensors, and can connect them to outside networks.
  • Radio frequency identification (RFID) encompasses wireless identification through radio transmission.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3 USER ADAPTIVE INTERFACES:

User adaptive interfaces, the third integral part of AmI, are also referred to as "Intelligent social user interfaces" (ISUIs).

ISUIs encompass interfaces that create a perceptive computer environment rather than one that relies solely on active and comprehensive user input. ISUIs can be grouped into five categories:

  • Visual recognition (e.g. face, 3D gesture, and location) and output
  • Sound recognition (e.g. speech, melody) and output
  • Scent recognition and output
  • Tactile recognition and output
  • Other sensor technologies

2. APPLICATIONS OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE:

Healthcare  and  social  support:  AmI  provides  many  opportunities  to  support  an  aging population, as envisaged in the Commission’s recent study The future of health care and care for the elderly: guaranteeing accessibility, quality and financial viability

 

Home in a networked society: AmI has the potential to create a private domestic

Sanctuary - “a place where one can lean back and be passive”.

It can also empower and enrich the individual within the home and provide additional and more flexible participation   in   work,   learning,   entertainment   and   family/social   interactions.   

 

Governance  and  public  services:  AmI  offers  many  opportunities,  enabling  social  support systems (including those related to child care, education and care of the elderly or infirm) to be delivered around the clock as befits a 24-hour economy and society

 

Mobility and transport: with AmI all ‘actors’ on the move, whether people or goods, can be location-aware and communicate with each other.

 

 

3. BENEFITS OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE:

           

  • Reduces the time complexity for user.

 

  • More Interaction With the new technologies.

 

  • More Security.

 

  • Privacy and data synchronization.

 

  • Brings convergence for all your family’s personal data.

 

The final steps towards this vision will be allowed by three dominant trends:

  • The increase of richness and completeness of human-computer interaction, through technology extensions of the senses and of the human body
  • The  relevant  role  of  mobility,  through  the  development  of  mobile  communications and extended networks
  • The pervasive diffusion of   intelligence in the   space   around   us,   through   the development of advanced biosensors.

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. SMART HOME SYSTEM:

 

We are on the verge of an age of convergence, and the very first place you will interact with the new technologies will be at home. The most important room in the house, the living room, is where the majority of gadgets being made are targeted. This is because this is the room where you and your family spend most of waking hours-seeking entertainment. The gadgets will be controlled by the house CPU and will automatically follow you as you move around the house- switching on displays and when some one enters a room and switching of once every one leaves.

 

The Hallway /Entrance:

 

            The logical place for the main home security panel is somewhere near the front door. This will merely control the security settings of the house, such as turning on or off the movement’s sensors out sides, setting the burglar alarm, and auto locking the house at predefined times. All the settings will also be accessible from anywhere else in the house using touch sensitive video output devices, and entering the correct user name and password combinations.

           

The main CPU will govern the security settings as well as other important semi-AmI functions such as privacy and data synchronization. Using secured wireless networks the house will also connect to various other devices, Such as the entertainment centre in the living room to send its instructions about what moves you requested for the evening, are what audio list is most popular at this time of day, and on this day of the week.

 

The house CPU will also monitor the external security camera and watch for movement or people approaching the doors or windows. You will be able to set it to pop up a visual of the person approaching on the video output device in the room you are currently in, while the speakers will play a soft alert sound

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     Smart Home System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. WORKING PROCEDURE OF SMART HOME SYSTEM:

           

            Architecture reveals the working procedure of Smart Home System and how it protects the home from burglars. 

 

          Smart Home System describes how the ambient intelligence, is implemented in securing home from the intruders, and how to handle unwanted calls using Voice Recognition and Visual Recognition. For communication we use WiMAX and WiFi wireless technologies. In ‘Smart Home System’ we have induced a niche i.e., if a person comes to the home, he is inspected by the sensor devices and then the device categorizes the user (Known, Unknown and expected) based on their preloaded information, where it provides the appropriate information to the user instead of owner. It also provides options for user to communicate with the owner, then according to the option the intimation takes place. This method is also implemented in attending the phone calls, where it uses a series of queries to identify a person, instead of his visual recognition. The  Smart Home’s Security System will automatically intimate’s to the nearest police station and the owner by means of a ‘Burglar Alarm’, only if any illegal crime has been committed by the robberies. 

6. CONCLUSION:

            Ambient Intelligence on developing user-friendly low-cost solutions with a high level of network security.  This  involves  seamless  integration  of  nano-  and  opto-electronics,  natural user  interfaces  and  integration  of  electronics  in  new  computing  substrates  like  fabrics  and plastic. The tools used for designing Ambient Intelligence applications, the software running on them and the communications infrastructures are technological challenges to be solved within the next 3 to 6 years.

 

Question. 18 What is SPEED-e?
(speed-e ,financial management)
Answer.

 

Q.1 What is SPEED-e?
SPEED-e is a common Internet Infrastructure that enables the Depository Participants (DPs) to provide depository services to their clients. Demat account holders (including Clearing Members) subscribing to this facility can submit delivery instructions to their DPs through SPEED-e websitehttps://eservices.nsdl.com, instead of submitting delivery instruction slips (in paper form) to their DPs. The users of SPEED-e can also check latest balances and transactions in their demat accounts through a facility called Internet-based Demat Account Statement (IDEAS) and monitor the status of execution of instructions.

Q.2 Who can avail of SPEED-e?
SPEED-e can be availed of by any demat account holder provided it’s DP has registered with NSDL for this purpose.

Q.3 How do I know whether my DP is registered with NSDL for SPEED-e?
You can find out from your DP whether it has registered with NSDL for SPEED-e. Alternatively, you can log on to https://eservices.nsdl.com and click on ‘sign up now’ to find out the list of DPs who are offering SPEED-e services.

Q.4 If I want to avail of SPEED-e services, how do I enroll / register for it?
If you wish to avail of this facility, you have the option of password based or smart card based access to SPEED-e. For password based access, you should fill up an online registration form by choosing your own 'User-Id' and 'Password' and then submit the duly filled-in registration form in person to your DP and sign an agreement with the DP. The DP will authorise your request and thereafter you can start using SPEED-e with the User-Id and password. For smart card based access, you should fill up the 'SPEED-e Application form' available on the SPEED-e website or can be obtained from your DP and then submit the duly filled-in form to your DP. After you sign an agreement with the DP, your DP will register you as a smart card user by assigning a User-Id and help you procure a Smart Card Kit, Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) and Personal Identification Number (PIN). Install the Smart Card Kit on to the computer and with the User-Id, DSC and PIN, you can start using SPEED-e.

Q.5 What is the difference between Smart card based access and Password based access to SPEED-e?
In password based operation, the access is given on the basis of "What you know (User-Id & Password)". The User-Id should be 'Alphanumeric' with minimum of three and maximum eight characters. The password also has to be 'Alphanumeric' with a minimum of eight and maximum of sixteen characters.
In smart card based operation, the access is given on the basis of "What you have" (smart card) and "What you know" (the PIN). The smart card based operation affixes digital signature to the transactions which is non-repudiable and authenticates that only the person possessing the smart card and knowing the PIN has submitted the instruction.

Q 6.What are the benefits of using a Smart Card ?
Apart from what is stated in Answer to Q.5 , the following are the additional benefits of using a smart card.

  • Smart card users can transfer securities to any account unlike password users where transfer of securities is permitted only upto three Pre-notified Clearing Member (broker) accounts.
  • Single smart card can be used to access all your demat accounts opened with the same DP.
  • Facility of Multiple Authorisation.
  • Freeze / unfreeze of account(s) / ISIN(s) and / or specific quantity of securities under an ISIN (for Smart Card Clients only).

Q.7 What is meant by Pre-Notified Clearing Member accounts?Should this Pre-notified Clearing Member also be a user of SPEED-e?
The password users using SPEED-ecan deliver securities only in favour of Clearing Members (Brokers). At the time of registration, the user must notify the details of Clearing Members (upto a maximum of three) in whose favour the credit can be effected. These Clearing Member accounts are referred to as Pre-Notified Clearing Member accounts. It is not necessary that the Pre-Notified Clearing Member is also a user of SPEED-e.

Q.8 How does SPEED-e work?
SPEED-e is an Internet website that receives the delivery instructions from the registered users.
These instructions are downloaded by the DPs, in batches, from the SPEED-e website for execution in the DP's depository system. The status of execution of instructions is updated on SPEED-ewebsite. The information regarding balances and transactions in demat accounts is available to the subscribers of IDEAS. Thus, you can check balances in your account, submit delivery instructions to your DP and verify the status of execution of those instructions.

Q.9 What are the benefits of SPEED-e?
The most important benefit of SPEED-e is the convenience of submitting delivery instructions. You can access the SPEED-e website from anywhere in the world at any point of time, check balances in your account, submit the instructions and track its status.SPEED-e eliminates the requirement of having to give the delivery instructions in paper form. Further, if you are a smart card user, you get an added benefit of freezing account(s) / ISIN(s) and / or specific quantity of securities under an ISIN through SPEED-e, which cannot be unfrozen even by your DP.

Q.10 Can I also view my account on SPEED-e?
Yes. Through IDEAS, Clients as well as brokers can view details of transactions and balances in their accounts. The Brokers can also download this information to update their back-offices.

Q.11 Who can avail of IDEAS?
IDeAS can be availed of by any demat account holder including Clearing Members (CMs) who have opened an account with any of the Participants under NSDL system. You can avail IDeAS as a Password or as a Smart Card user.

Q.12 As a SPEED-e user, how do I register for IDEAS?
Existing SPEED-e users (i.e. both Password and Smart Card users) can click on the “Change Service” link and choose IDEAS. DP will authorise your request and thereafter you will be able to accessIDEAS with the same User-Id and password/PIN as the case may be.

Q.13 If I am not a SPEED-e user, as a Client how do I register for IDEAS?
To register as a password user, Client should fill-up an online registration request for IDEAS atSPEED-e website, choose its own User-Id & password and submit duly signed print-out of the form to the DP. Based on the online request and the form submitted by the Client, DP authorises the request and thereafter with the User-Id and password, a Client can start using IDEAS.In case you want to register as a smart card user, download the 'Application form for IDEAS' for Smart Card Users fromSPEED-e website or obtain it directly from your DP. Fill-up all particulars and submit the form to your DP who will assign a User-Id and help you procure a Smart Card Kit, DSC and PIN. Install the Smart Card Kit on to the computer and with the User-Id, DSC and PIN, you can start using IDEAS.

Q.14 As a broker, how do I register for IDEAS?
To register as a password user, you should fill-up the Application form and Terms & Conditions for Clearing Members for IDEAS available on SPEED-e website (https://eservices.nsdl.com)and send it to NSDL after obtaining DP’s attestation alongwith the IDeAS Annual Fee. NSDL will provide the User-Id and Password after which broker can start using this facility.

In case you wish to register as a smart card user, you should fill up the application form for IDeASand obtain DP's attestation. Contact NSDL for procuring smart card kit and submit the form alongwith the smart card to NSDL. NSDL will assign User-Id and issue DSC & PIN. After installing the smart card kit, with the User-Id, DSC and PIN, you can start using IDeAS.

Q.15 What are the features available to Brokers?
Brokers will be able to view the latest balances and transactions in their pool accounts in respect of settlements for the current pay-in date, previous four and next four pay-in days. The other salient features are:

Holding Statement:
A broker can view all its delivery instructions for a particular market type and settlement number which have been settled. These instructions can be viewed separately in the "Holding Statement".

Overdue Statement:
This feature enables the broker to view all its delivery instructions for a particular market type and settlement number, which are in 'Overdue' status. After the overdue instructions are settled, they can be viewed in the "Holding Statement".

Transaction File Download:
This feature allows brokers to download settlement related instructions (debit/credit) executed by their DPs across various market types and settlement numbers for a given transaction date. The data is for transactions relating to settlements for the current pay-in date, previous four and next four pay-in days. The date-wise download can be obtained in a 'plain text tab delimited format' and can be used for further processing in the back-office system.

ISIN Master Download:
This feature enables brokers to keep the back-office systems updated with the details of ISINs in NSDL system. ISIN master gives details of all ISINs along with ISIN code, ISIN description and their current status.

Q.16 What are the features for Clients?

  • Clients can view latest balances along with the value based on the previous day closing price in their demat account. *
     
  • Client can view transactions that have taken place in their demat accounts during the last 30 days. 
     
  • Clients can download month-wise statement of transaction for the previous months (maximum 12 months) bearing NSDL's digital signature, which can be verified by using a Signature Verification Utility. The said signature verification utility and detailed procedure regarding installation of Signature Verification Utility is available for download athttps://eservices.nsdl.com (i.e. Click the hyperlink download under New Users / IDeAS).
     
  • Clients can access IDeAS by password or smart card.

 

 

Disclaimer : While care has been exercised by NSDL compiling price file. NSDL does not warrant completeness or accuracy of information and disclaims all liabilities, losses and damages arising out of use of this information. For any specific/latest information, you may contact the respective stock exchange.

 

Q.17 Once I subscribe to IDEAS, does it mean that my DP will stop sending me the transaction statements?
Yes. SEBI has permitted the DPs to discontinue providing physical transaction statements to their Clients provided the Client subscribes to IDeAS. However, your DP will send a consolidated transaction statement, in physical form, for the entire financial year and the same shall be sent to you before 15th of May every year.

Q.18 How frequently IDEAS is updated to reflect the balances and transactions in demat accounts?
The balances and transactions on IDEAS are updated on an online but not real time basis. However, due to some technical reasons, the information may have been updated till the last half an hour. Users must check the latest position with their DPs.

Q.19 What is the minimum computer configuration required for accessing SPEED-e?
If you are a password user, all you need is a computer with 32 MB RAM and Windows 95 / 98 / NT having either Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 or above or Netscape Navigator 4.7 with an Internet connection.
If you are a smart card user, you need to procure a smart card reader and a smart card with help from your DP. The computer configuration must be 64 MB RAM and Windows 98/NT having Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 or above with 128 bit encryption, with an Internet connection.

Q.20 Once I subscribe to SPEED-e, does it mean that my DP will stop accepting paper based instructions?
No. You can submit paper instructions to your DP. However, if you have given instructions throughSPEED-e, you are not required to submit paper instructions to your DP.

Q.21 Can a Power of Attorney holder (POA) operate my demat account through SPEED-e?
Yes. A POA can operate your demat account through SPEED-e. But, for subscribing to SPEED-e, the original account holder(s) must sign the agreement and the application form. In fact, you may not find the need for a POA to operate your account as you can now operate your account from anywhere in the world, provided you have access to Internet and the necessary infrastructure mentioned in theAnswer to Q 19.

Q.22 If I have several Demat Accounts, can I operate all these accounts through SPEED-e?
Yes. You can operate all your demat accounts through SPEED-e provided your DP has joined SPEED-e and you have registered each of your account separately with distinct User-Ids (applicable for both password and smart card based users). In case you are a smart card user, you can use the same smart card to operate all your demat accounts.

Q.23 Can I convert from password based access to smart-card based access?
Yes. First you will have to discontinue the password based access by following the steps mentioned inAnswer to Q.50. and then apply for smart card based access as mentioned in Answer to Q.4.

Q.24. How does one give instructions from a jointly held demat account through SPEED-e?
For password based operation, only one user can operate the account. Joint Holders will have to give a POAto one among themselves .For smart card based operation, besides what is stated above, all the joint holders can operate the account independently or jointly using Multiple Authorisation facility.

Q.25 What are the steps involved in submitting an instruction using a smart card?
The following are the steps involved in submitting an instruction using a smart card.

  • Login to SPEED-e website using the User–Id.
  • Select the certificate from the Browser.
  • Input the PIN on the smart card reader.
  • Submit the Delivery Instruction.
  • Confirm the Instruction and repeat steps (b) and (c) again, to digitally authorise the instruction.

Q.26. What should I do if I forget my User-Id?
If you are a Client using SPEED-e/IDEAS as a password user and forget your User-Id, you cannot access SPEED-e/IDEAS. Approach your DP for revocation of your present User-Id by quoting your Client Id. After revoking your User-Id, you will be required to re-register on SPEED-e/IDEAS. If you are a Client/Clearing Member using SPEED-e as a smart card user, please contact your DP which will provide you the User-Id.
If you are a Clearing Member using IDEAS as a password or smart card user, please contact NSDL which will provide you the User-Id.

Q.27. What should I do if I forget my Password?
If you are Client using SPEED-e/IDEAS, log-on to SPEED-e website, submit your User-Id, click on'Forgot Password' and fill-up an online ' Password Reset Request' form by supplying the new Password, Client Id & other personal details. A print-out of this form has to be given to your DP which will then authorise the Password Reset Request.
If you are a Clearing Member using IDEAS, log-on to SPEED-e website, submit your User-Id, click on'Forgot Password' and fill-up an online ' Password Reset Request' form by supplying the new Password & CM BP Id. A print-out of this form has to be given to NSDL which will then authorise the Password Reset Request.

Q.28. Should I change my password at regular intervals?
Yes. For your own safety, you should change your password as frequently as possible by selecting the option ' Change Password'. However, if the password is not changed for a period of sixty days, then the system prompts for the same and a new password has to be entered.

Q.29. What is Multiple Authorisation?
Multiple Authorisation is a facility that allows multiple users of an account to digitally authorise delivery instructions while submitting the instructions through SPEED-e. This facility is available only to Smart Card Users. To avail of this facility, the users must state the Number of Persons who would authorise an instruction (minimum of two and a maximum of three). Once you enable your account for multiple authorisation, instructions from that account will always require two or three users as the case may be, to digitally "authorise" the instruction using the smart card. The Users can login separately at their convenience, and "capture" or "authorise" a delivery instruction based on the functional rights assigned to them.
e.g. (a) In case of a depository account with 3 joint holders where all the three have been registered as SPEED-e users and the Number of Authorisations (NOA) can be specified as three , then all the 3 joint holders must "authorise" the instruction , to be successfully submitted through SPEED-e.
(b) In case of a corporate account having 5 authorised signatories and all are registered as SPEED-eusers and the number of authorisations has been specified as three, then any three out of the 5 signatories can "authorise" the instruction, to be successfully submitted through SPEED-e.

Q.30. How will the smart card based user intimate its DP about the Number of Authorisations and functional rights?
At the time of registration for smart card based access, you will have to intimate to your DP, the Number of Authorisations (NOAs) that are required to execute an instruction along with the functional rights of 'Capture' or 'Authorise', to be assigned to each user. ('Capture' right allows the user to only 'Capture' an instruction while 'Authorise' right allows the user to both 'Capture' and 'Authorise' an instruction). While intimating the functional rights to the DP, you must ensure that there are as many users with 'Authorise' rights as the NOAs. e.g. if there are 5 authorised signatories who are registered as users and the NOA has been specified as 2 , then it must be ensured that there are at least 2 users with "Authorise" rights. The other users may have either "Capture" or "Authorise" rights.

Q.31. If there are three authorised signatories, how does the system of 'Capture' and 'Authorise' work?
If there are three authorised signatories and the NOA has been specified as two, then there should be at least two users with "Authorise" rights and the other user may either have "Capture" or "Authorise" rights .If the NOA has been specified as three, then all three users should have "Authorise" rights, so as to successfully execute the instructions through SPEED-e.

Q.32 Can the Number of Authorisations and functional rights be modified?
Yes. The user should intimate to its DP regarding the change in the NOAs and the modifications in the functional rights of the users from 'Capture' to 'Authorise' or vice versa.

Q.33 Is Multiple Authorisation facility available to Individual Investors also?
Yes. All users having a smart card based access to SPEED-e , can avail of this facility.

Q.34 Is it mandatory for corporate accounts to opt for Multiple Authorisation?
No. It is not mandatory for corporate accounts to opt for this facility. They can still have one authorised signatory who would be able to both 'Capture' as well as 'Authorise' Instructions.

Q.35 Can the authorised signatory who has the right to 'Authorise', modify the instruction captured by the authorised signatory having the right to 'Capture'?
No. An instruction once captured cannot be modified. If the person having the right to authorise finds any errors / discrepancies in the instructions already captured, he should not authorise such instructions and instructions which are not authorised will not have any effect. In such cases, the correct instruction will have to be captured and duly authorised.

Q.36 How soon an instruction is required to be authorised after it is captured.?
The instruction should be authorised before expiry of the execution date or 15 days from the date of capture whichever is earlier. Instructions should be authorised in a timely manner so that the instructions are received by SPEED-e atleast one clear working day prior to the execution date. (e.g. if the execution date is on a Friday , the instructions must be received by SPEED-e latest by Wednesday). If the instructions are authorised late, the DP may execute the same on a best effort basis, at the risk of the concerned account holder.

Q.37 Can the authorised signatory who has the right to 'Authorise' find out the number of instructions which are pending for authorisation?
Yes. As soon as the authorised signatory who has the right to authorise, logs on to SPEED-e using his User-Id, he would be alerted regarding the number of instructions pending for authorisation from the 'Pending Authorisation Summary ' in the opening screen.

Q.38 Can the facility of Multiple Authorisation be disabled?
Yes. It can be disabled by intimating to the DP to put the NOA as one. All the Authorised Signatories / joint holders will have to sign the form intimating the change.

Q.39 What is freeze/unfreeze?
Freeze is a facility available in the NSDL system, which allows the demat account holder (Beneficiary) to freeze account(s) / ISIN(s) and / or specific quantity of securities under an ISIN by giving suitable paper based instructions. Unfreeze facility is for removal of the freeze applied.

Q.40 Can I execute freeze/unfreeze instruction through SPEED-e?
Yes. NSDL has introduced this feature on SPEED-e, whereby smart card Clients can directly freeze/unfreeze their account(s) / ISIN(s) and / or specific quantity of securities under an ISIN by giving instructions through SPEED-e. You can freeze your account by 'Suspending for debit' or 'Suspending for debit and credit'. Freeze request executed by you through SPEED-e cannot be unfrozen by your DP.

Q.41 After becoming a SPEED-e user, can I still freeze/unfreeze my demat account through my DP?
Yes. You can freeze/unfreeze your demat account through your DP by giving necessary paper based instructions.

Q.42 Can I unfreeze my demat account frozen through SPEED-e, through my DP?
No. You can unfreeze your demat account frozen through SPEED-e, only through SPEED-e. To unfreeze an account frozen through SPEED-e, you must give necessary instructions through SPEED-e. Similarly, an account frozen through your DP cannot be unfrozen through SPEED-e.

Q.43 If I have lost my smart card what should I do?
If you are SPEED-e/IDEAS Client, then you have to apply to your DP for revocation of DSC (unique digital certificate embedded in the original smart card) issued to you for SPEED-e/IDEAS operation. You will also have to apply for issue of a new smart card, DSC and PIN to operate SPEED-e/IDEASby following the steps mentioned in Answer to Q.4. You may also consider requesting your DP to suspend your SPEED-e/IDEAS in the interim period, as an added precaution.
If you are a Clearing Member who has subscribed to IDEAS, then you have to apply to NSDL for revocation of DSC (unique digital certificate embedded in the original smart card) issued to you forIDEAS operation.You will also have to apply for issue of a new smart card, DSC and PIN to operateIDEAS by following the steps mentioned in Answer to Q.14.

Q.44 If I have forgotten my PIN what should I do?
If you are SPEED-e/IDEAS Client, then you have to apply to your DP for revocation of DSC issued to you for SPEED-e/IDEAS operation. You will also have to handover your smart card to your DP and apply afresh for a new DSC. You will be able to use SPEED-e/IDEAS only after a new certificate is issued to you. You should initialize your smart card using PIN entry ‘1234’ before handing it over to the DP.
If you are a Clearing Member who has subscribed to IDEAS, then you have to apply to NSDL for revocation of DSC issued to you for IDEAS. You will also have to handover your smart card to NSDL and apply afresh for a new DSC. You will be able to use IDEAS only after a new certificate is issued to you. You should initialize your smart card using PIN entry ‘1234’ before handing it over to NSDL.

Q.45 What are the charges for availing of SPEED-e/IDEAS services?
NSDL charges the DPs. DPs have their own charge structure for their Clients. You can contact your DP for charges. However, for freezing your account through SPEED-e, NSDL has advised the DPs not to charge more than Rs. 125/- per instruction. 
Clearing Members have to pay an Annual subscription fee (inclusive of service tax) every financial year to avail IDeAS. Please contact NSDL for charges.

Q.46 How safe and secure is it to execute transactions using SPEED-e?
All transactions executed through SPEED-e are in a safe and secure environment as SPEED-e uses 128 bit SSL (Secure Socket Layer) technology. This ensures that the User communicates with an authentic Internet website set up by NSDL and confidentiality is ensured as the data exchanged over the Internet is encrypted. In addition, internal controls and procedures, put in place by NSDL make the entire system robust and virtually tamper-proof. The website also features firewall security, intrusion detection system and hardware redundancy to maximise the availability of service.SPEED-ealso displays the date and time of your last visit so that you can check whether there was any unauthorised log-in.
Following are the additional safety features:-

 

  • For Password Users: Debit instructions only in favour of pre-notified broker accounts who will be required to submit a consent letter that in case of any unintended / erroneous transfer(s), the broker will deliver the securities back to the User. Also stringent password norms viz; Alpha-numeric password, automatic expiry once in sixty days and disabling of login after three attempts due to wrong password entry, ensure additional safety.
  • For Smart Card Users: Ultimate security lies in the hands of the User by safe keeping the Smart Card and secrecy of PIN. Smart Card-the hardware token and PIN-the remembered information, together provide "what you have & what you know" security. Digital Signature Certificate embedded on the Smart Card ensures User-Identification, authentication and non-repudiation of transactions executed on SPEED-e.

 

Q.47 What steps have been taken to prevent hacking?
SPEED-e facility is protected by firewall .The facility uses authentication gateway for access authorisation . The system uses 128 bit SSL protocol for encrypted communication. The physical access to infrastructure is restricted to authorised personnel. Monitoring and logging systems are setup for access audit.

Q.48 Does usage of SPEED-e/IDEAS expose my computer to risks of computer viruses?
The robust security systems architecture of SPEED-e/IDEAS does not allow computer viruses to permeate the system so easily. This can be complemented with good discipline at the client side computing viz.; preventing unauthorised use of computing resources and use of latest anti-virus softwares.

Q.49 Can I access SPEED-e website from a public terminal / cybercafe?
It is advisable to work from your own computer. However, SPEED-e can be accessed from a public terminal / cybercafe as long as the computer meets with the minimum configuration. The Users must take necessary precautions like closing the browser after use, ensuring that your key strokes are not captured by a software which can be replayed after you leave the cybercafe and deleting the temporary Internet files. Smart Card Users will have to install the necessary software and smart card reader in the computer before using SPEED-e. After the use, you must remove the software and drivers that were installed for the smart card.

Q.50 How do I discontinue my registration to use SPEED-e / IDEAS service?
If you are Password User, go to "Change Service" option in SPEED-e menu and click on the check box for disabling any/all of the services. This will disable you from the service(s) you have opted for. If you are a smart card user go to "Change Service" option in SPEED-e menu and click on the check box for disabling any/all of the services. Based on your request, your DP will authorise the request for revocation.

Q.51 If I have subscribed to IDEAS, can I get SPEED-e automatically ?
You will be required to check whether your DP has subscribed to SPEED-e. If yes, you need to complete registration formalities with your DP and make an online request by clicking on the "Change Service" link and select SPEED-e option. Your DP will authorise your request after which you will be able to use SPEED-e.

Q.52 Whom do I contact for online help/assistance/trouble-shooting?
If you have any queries/suggestions/complaints, you can contact your DP.
For any suggestions or any unresolved queries or complaints, you can contact NSDL at the following address:

Mr. Rakesh Mehta / Mr. Charles Mathew
SPEED-e Cell / IDeAS Cell 
National Securities Depository Limited 
TradeWorld, ‘A’Wing ,
4thFloor Kamala Mills Compound 
Senapati Bapat Marg
Lower Parel
Mumbai-400013 
Board Line:91-22-24994200
Fax:91-22-24976355 / 24994985
E-Mailspeede@nsdl.co.in / ideas@nsdl.co.in

 
Question. 19Who is a Non-Resident Indian [NRI],person resident outside India,&‘person of Indian origin’?
(PIOs,NRI.)
Answer.

 

 

Q.1      Who is a Non-Resident Indian [NRI]?

Ans.     Non- Resident Indian [NRI] means a ‘person resident outside India’ who is a citizen of India or is a ‘person of Indian origin’.

 

Q.2      Who is a ‘person resident outside India’?

Ans.     Under the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 [FEMA], a person who is NOT a ‘person resident in India’, as defined under Section 2 (v) of the Act is considered as a ‘person resident outside India’.  The most important change in definition [since FERA 1973] is that the citizenship of a person no longer has a bearing in determination of residential status.

 

Q.3      Who is a ‘person of Indian origin’?

Ans.     ‘Person of Indian Origin’ (PIO) means a citizen of any country other than Bangladesh or Pakistan, if

a.       he at any time held Indian passport; or

b.      he or either of his parents or any of his grandparents was a citizen of India by virtue of the Constitution of India or the Citizenship Act, 1955; or

c.       the person is a spouse of an Indian citizen or a person referred to in sub-clause [a] or [b].

Investment by PIO in Indian Securities is treated the same as the investment by non-resident Indians and requires same approvals and enjoys the same exemptions.

 

Q.4      What is an ‘Overseas Corporate Body’ [OCB]?

Ans.     ‘Overseas Corporate Body’ means a company, partnership firm, society and other corporate body owned directly or indirectly to the extent of at least sixty percent by Non-Resident Indians and includes overseas trust in which not less than sixty percent beneficial interest is held by Non-Resident Indians directly or indirectly but irrevocably.

 

OCBs were debarred from Portfolio Investment Scheme w.e.f November 29, 2001. OCBs have been banned as a class of investor w.e.f September 16, 2003. However, they have been permitted to continue to hold the securities acquired by them prior to these dates. Accordingly OCBs may open a demat account, however it can be only for the purpose of dematerializing the existing holdings.

 

Q.5      Where can an NRI/PIO open a demat account?

Ans.     NRI/PIO can open a demat account with any Depository Participant [DP] of NSDL. The NRI/PIO needs to mention the type [‘NRI’ as compared to ‘Resident’] and the sub-type [‘Repatriable’ or ‘Non-Repatriable’] in the account opening form collected from the DP.

 

           

 

 

Q.6      Does an NRI need any RBI permission to open a demat account?

Ans.     No permission is required from RBI to open a demat account.  However, credits and debits from demat account may require general or specific permissions as the case may be, from designated authorised dealers.

 

Q.7      If NRI/PIO desires to make investments under different schemes, can he hold all such securities in a single demat account?

Ans.     No. Securities received against investments under ‘Foreign Direct Investment scheme (FDI)’, ‘Portfolio Investment scheme (PIS)’ and ‘Scheme for Investment’ on non – repatriation basis have to be credited into separate demat accounts. Investment under PIS could be on repatriation or non – repatriation basis. Investment under FDI scheme is on repatriation basis.

 

Q.8      Does an NRI require RBI permission for dematerialiation/rematerialisation of securities?

Ans.     No special permission is required.  Holding securities in demat only constitutes change in form and does not need any special permission. However, only those physical securities which already have the status as NR – Repatriable / NR- Non-Repatriable can be dematerialised in the corresponding Depository Accounts.

 

Q.9      Can securities purchased under repatriable and non-repatriable category be held in a single demat account?

Ans.     No. An NRI must open separate demat accounts for holding ‘repatriable’ and        'non-repatriable’ securities.

 

Q.10    In case a person who is resident in India becomes a non-resident, will he/she be required to change the status of his/her holding from Resident to Non-Resident?

Ans.     As per section 6(5) of FEMA, NRI can continue to hold the securities which he/she had purchased as a resident Indian, even after he/she has become a non resident Indian, on a non-repatriable basis.

 

Q.11    In case a non-resident Indian becomes a resident in India, will he/she be required to change the status of his/her holding from Non-Resident to Resident?

Ans.     Yes. It is the responsibility of the NRI to inform the change of status to the designated authorised dealer branch, through which the investor had made the investments in Portfolio Investment Scheme and the DP with whom he/she has opened the demat account. Subsequently, a new demat account in the resident status will have to be opened, securities should be transferred from the NRI demat account to resident account and then close the NRI demat account.

 

 

 

 

Q.12    Can NRIs invest in shares, debentures and units of mutual funds in India?

Ans.    NRIs are permitted to make direct investments in shares/ debentures of Indian companies/ units of mutual fund. They are also permitted to make portfolio investments i.e. purchase of share / debentures of Indian Companies through stock exchange. These facilities are granted both on repatriation and non-repatriation basis.

 

Q 13  Can an NRI purchase securities by subscribing to public issue? What are the permissions/approvals required?

Ans.     Yes. The issuing company is required to issue shares to NRI on the basis of specific or general permission from GoI/RBI. Therefore, individual NRI need not obtain any permission.

 

Q.14    Does an NRI require any permission to receive bonus/rights shares?

Ans.     No.

 

Q.15    What is Portfolio Investment Scheme?

Ans.     Under this scheme, NRIs are permitted to acquire shares/debentures of Indian companies or units of domestic Mutual Funds through the stock exchange(s) in India.

 

Investment can be made both on repatriation or non-repatriation basis. For making investment on repatriation basis, it will be necessary to make payments by way of inward remittance or by debit to the NRE / FCNR account of the NRI / PIO. Investment on non-repatriation basis can also be made by way of inward remittance or by debit to the NRE / FCNR / NRO accounts.

 

The sale proceeds of the repatriable investments can be credited to the NRE / NRO accounts of the NRI / PIO at the option of the investor, whereas the sale proceeds of non-repatriable investment can be credited only to NRO accounts.

 

The sale of shares will be subject to payment of applicable taxes.

 

Q.16    What is the procedure for making applications for Portfolio Investment Scheme?

Ans.     The application is to be submitted to a designated branch of an authorised dealer in India in the prescribed form. No permission is required from RBI.

 

Q.17    What is a designated branch?

Ans.     Reserve Bank has authorised a few branches of each authorised dealer to conduct the business under Portfolio Investment Scheme on behalf of NRIs. These branches are the main branches of major commercial banks. NRIs will have to route their applications through any of the designated authorised dealer branches who have authorisation from Reserve Bank.

 

 

Q.18    Whether NRI can apply through more than one authorised dealer?

Ans.     No. NRI can select only one authorised dealer for the purpose of investment under Portfolio Investment Scheme and route the transactions through the branch designated by the authorised dealer.

 

Q.19    Can an NRI purchase or sell shares or convertible debentures on a stock exchange in India on repatriation or non-repatriation basis under portfolio investment scheme?

Ans.     NRIs / PIOs can purchase / sell shares / convertible debentures of Indian companies on Stock Exchanges under the Portfolio Investment Scheme. The rules relating to this scheme are as given below:

           

(i)                 Shares purchased under PIS on Stock Exchange shall be sold on stock exchanges only. Prior approval of RBI is required if such shares are proposed to be transferred either by way of gift or under private arrangement  to a non-resident/ resident.

(ii)               These trades can be done only through a registered broker on a recognised stock exchange

(iii)             NRI shall designate a branch of an authorised dealer and route all his/her transactions through this branch of the authorised dealer.

(iv)             NRI takes delivery of the shares purchased and gives delivery of shares sold.

(v)               NRI shall abide by the directions given by RBI/SEBI or such authority if the transaction results in the breach of ceilings stipulated for NRI holding in the company/scheme.

The sale of shares will be subject to payment of applicable taxes.

 

An NRI or a PIO can purchase shares up to 5% of the paid up capital of an Indian company. All NRIs / PIOs (also the OCBs who had purchased shares under the earlier scheme) taken together cannot purchase more than 10% of the paid up value of the company. (This limit can be increased by an Indian company to 24% by passing a General Body resolution).

 

 

Q 20 What are the permissions required for the transfer of securities by NRI/ PIO through off-market trade (transfers outside the purview of Portfolio Investment Scheme of RBI)?

 

Ans. The table given below summarizes the permissions required for the off-market transfer:

From

To

Transaction

Permissions Required

NRI

NRI

Sale or Gift

General permission, no specific permission to be taken*

NRI

Resident Indian

Gift

Prior approval of RBI required.

NRI

Resident Indian

Sale under private arrangement

General permission already available.

Resident Indian

NRI

Gift

Prior approval of RBI/FIPB should be obtained.

Resident Indian

NRI

Sale under private arrangement

General permission is already available provided the shares being transferred are not of the companies engaged in financial service sectors, such transfer does not attract SEBI takeover code and the activity of the company should be eligible for FDI.

 

*          provided that the person to whom the shares are being transferred has obtained prior permission of Central Government to acquire the shares, if he has previous venture or tie up in India through investment in shares or debentures or a technical collaboration or a trade mark agreement or investment by whatever name called in the same field or allied filed in which the Indian company whose shares are being transferred is engaged.

 

Q.21   Can a DP ask for RBI permission for executing instructions for purchase or sale?

Ans.     An individual NRI cannot purchase under PIS shares exceeding 5% of the paid up capital of a company.  The onus of monitoring this limit is that of the designated authorised dealer. Shares purchased under PIS scheme can be sold only through a stock exchange. See the rules explained under Q.No. 19. No permission is required from RBI to purchase or sell under Portfolio Investment Scheme.

 

Q.22  Can an NRI nominate or be nominated in depository account?  Whether such nominee can be person resident in India?

Ans.      Yes.

 

 

Q.23 What type of bank account details is to be given at the time of account opening and subsequently [by way of change of details]?

Ans. The following bank  accounts may be given:

For non-repatriable                  -           NRO [dividend/interest is repatriable]

For repatriable                         -           NRE

 

The above details recorded by the DP in the demat account may be used by the Issuer to directly credit dividend or interest.

(Dividend/interest received on Investments made on repatriation and non – repatriation basis under Portfolio Investment Scheme is not an eligible credit to NRE (PIS) Account and NRO (PIS) Account respectively).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question. 20What Is Depository?
(Financial management)
Answer.

 

1. What is a depository?
Ans. A depository can be compared to a bank. A depository holds securities (like shares, debentures, bonds, Government Securities, units etc.) of investors in electronic form. Besides holding securities, a depository also provides services related to transactions in securities.
2. How can I avail the service of a depository?
Ans. A depository interfaces with the investors through its agents called Depository Participants (DPs). If an investor wants to avail the services offered by the depository, the investor has to open an account with a DP. This is similar to opening an account with any branch of a bank in order to utilise the bank's services. Suggestions on how to select a DP are given in Section IV.

 

II. Benefits
1. What are the benefits of participation in a depository?
Ans.

The benefits of participation in a depository are:

 

  1. Immediate transfer of securities;
  2. No stamp duty on transfer of securities;
  3. Elimination of risks associated with physical certificates such as bad delivery , fake securities , etc.;
  4. Reduction in paperwork involved in transfer of securities;
  5. Reduction in transaction cost;
  6. Nomination facility;
  7. Change in address recorded with DP gets registered electronically with all companies in which investor holds securities eliminating the need to correspond with each of them separately;
  8. Transmission of securities is done by DP eliminating correspondence with companies;
  9. Convenient method of consolidation of folios/accounts ;
  10. Holding investments in equity, debt instruments and Government securities in a single account;
  11. Automatic credit into demat account, of shares, arising out of split/consolidation/merger etc.



 

III. Services
1. What are the facilities offered by NSDL?
Ans.

NSDL offers following facilities: -

 

  • Dematerialisation i.e., converting physical certificates to electronic form;
  • Rematerialisation i.e., conversion of securities in demat form into physical certificates;
  • Facilitating repurchase / redemption of units of mutual funds;
  • Electronic settlement of trades in stock exchanges connected to NSDL;
  • Pledging/hypothecation of dematerialised securities against loan;
  • Electronic credit of securities allotted in public issues, rights issue;
  • Receipt of non-cash corporate benefits such as bonus, in electronic form;
  • Freezing of demat accounts, so that the debits from the account are not permitted;
  • Nomination facility for demat accounts;
  • Services related to change of address;
  • Effecting transmission of securities;
  • Instructions to your DP over Internet through SPEED-e facility. (Please check with your DP for availing the facility);
  • Account monitoring facility over Internet for clearing members through SPEED facility;
  • Other facilities viz. holding debt instruments in the same account, availing stock lending/borrowing facility, etc.



 

IV. Account Opening
1. You mentioned that I would have to open an account with a DP if I want to participate in the depository. Who is a DP?
Ans. NSDL provides its services to investors through its agents called depository participants (DPs). These agents are appointed by NSDL with the approval of SEBI. According to SEBI regulations, amongst others, three categories of entities i.e. Banks, Financial Institutions and Members of Stock Exchanges [brokers] registered with SEBI can become DPs. You can get a list of DPs from NSDL's office or from our website at www.nsdl.co.in.
2. How do I select a DP?
Ans.

You can select your DP to open a demat account just like you select a bank for opening a savings account. Some of the important factors for selection of a DP can be:

 

  1. Convenience - Proximity to your office/residence, business hours.
  2. Comfort - Reputation of the DP, past association with the organisation, whether the DP is in a position to give the specific service you may need?
  3. Cost - The service charges levied by DP and the service standards.

In order to obtain the complete list of DP locations and their comparative charge structure, you may log on to www.nsdl.co.in or else you may write to NSDL for the same.

3. Whether all the DPs are same?
Ans. All the DPs are appointed subject to fulfilment of uniform requirements of SEBI ( Depositories and Participants) Regulations, 1996 and requirements of NSDL. However, the type of services offered and the service standards may differ among various DPs. For example, a DP branch having direct connectivity with the main office having depository set-up may be in a position to execute instructions faster.
4. What should I do when I want to open an account with a DP?
Ans.

You can approach any DP of your choice and fill up an account opening form. At the time of opening an account, you have to sign an agreement with the DP in a NSDL prescribed standard agreement, which details your and your DP’s rights and duties. You have to submit the following with the prescribed account opening form. In case you want to open account jointly with other person(s), following should be submitted for all the account holders.

 

  1. Proof of Identity (POI) (copy of any one proof): 

    • Passport
    • Voter ID Card
    • Driving license
    • PAN card with photograph
    • Identity card/document with applicant’s Photo, issued by a) Central/State Government and its Departments, b) Statutory/Regulatory Authorities, c) Public Sector Undertakings, d) Scheduled Commercial Banks, e) Public Financial Institutions, f) Colleges affiliated to Universities (this can be treated as valid only till the time the applicant is a student), g) Professional Bodies such as ICAI, ICWAI, ICSI, Bar Council etc., to their Members; and h) Credit cards/Debit cards issued by Banks.
  2. Proof of Address (POA) (copy of any one proof): 

    • Ration card
    • Passport
    • Voter ID Card
    • Driving license
    • Bank passbook
    • Verified copies of Electricity bills (not more than two months old)/ Residence Telephone bills (not more than two months old)/ Leave and License agreement / Agreement for sale.
    • Self-declaration by High Court & Supreme Court judges, giving the new address in respect of their own accounts.
    • Identity card/document with address, issued by a) Central/State Government and its Departments, b) Statutory/Regulatory Authorities, c) Public Sector Undertakings, d) Scheduled Commercial Banks, e) Public Financial Institutions, f) Colleges affiliated to universities (this can be treated as valid only till the time the applicant is a student); and g) Professional Bodies such as ICAI, ICWAI, Bar Council etc., to their Members.
  3. Passport-size photograph. 

    IV. Copy of PAN Card. 

    You must remember to take original documents to the DP for verification. Your DP will carry-out “in-person verification” of account holder(s) at the time of opening your account. You should remember to obtain a copy of the agreement and schedule of charges for your future reference. 

    Note: Your DP may ask an additional proof of identity/address.
5. Can I open more than one account with the same DP?
Ans. Yes. You can open more than one account with the same DP. There is no restriction on the number of accounts you can open with a DP.
6. Am I restricted to having account with only one DP?
Ans. No. There are no restrictions on the number of DPs you can open accounts with. Just as you can have savings or current accounts with more than one bank, you can open accounts with more than one DP.
7. Do I have to keep any minimum balance of securities in my account with my DP?
Ans. No. The depository has not prescribed any minimum balance. You can have zero balance in your account.
8. Can I open a single account for securities owned in different ownership patterns such as securities owned individually and securities owned along-with my wife ?
Ans. No. The demat account must be opened in the same ownership pattern in which the securities are held in the physical form. e. g. if one share certificate is in your individual name and another certificate is jointly held in your and your wife's name , two different accounts would have to be opened.
9. What do I do if I have physical certificates with the same combination of names, but the sequence of names is different. i.e. some certificates with husband as first holder and wife as second holder and other set of certificates with wife as first holder and husband as the second holder?
Ans. In this case you may open only one account with husband and wife as the account holders and lodge the security certificates with different order of names for dematerialisation in the same account. You will fill-up an additional form called " Transposition cum Demat" form. This would help you to effect change in the order of names as well as dematerialise the securities.
10. Can someone else operate my account on my behalf on the basis of a power of attorney ?
Ans. Yes. If you authorise any person to operate your account by executing a power of attorney and submit it to your DP, that person can operate the account on your behalf.
11. Why should I give my bank account details at the time of account opening?
Ans. It is for protection of your interest. Your bank account number will be mentioned on the interest or dividend warrant, you are entitled to, so that such warrant cannot be encashed by any one else. Further, a DP cannot open the account if bank account number is not given.
12. Can I change details of my bank account?
Ans. Yes. Since in the depository system monetary benefits on your security balances are paid as per the bank account details provided by you at the time of account opening , you must ensure that any subsequent change in bank account details is informed to your depository participant.
13. What is 'Standing Instruction' given in the account opening form?
Ans. In a bank account, credit to the account is given only when a 'paying in' slip is submitted together with cash/cheque. Similarly, in a depository account 'Receipt in' form has to be submitted to receive securities in the account. However, for the convenience of investors, facility of 'standing instruction' is given. If you say 'Yes' for standing instruction, you need not submit 'Receipt in' slip everytime you buy securities.
14. Can I operate a joint account on "either or survivor" basis just like a bank account?
Ans. No. The demat account cannot be operated on "either or survivor" basis like the bank account.
15. Can I add or delete names of accountholders (second or third accountholder) after opening the account ?
Ans. No. Names of the accountholders for a depository account cannot be changed. If you want to change name or add / delete an accountholder, you need to open a new account in the desired holding pattern (names) and transfer the securities to the newly opened account. The old account may be closed.
16. What should I do if my address is changed? Do I need to write to each company separately?
Ans. In case your address is changed, you only need to inform the new address to your DP(s). When DP enters the new address in the depository computer system, it will be automatically conveyed to all companies in which you hold shares.
17. Can I close my demat account with one DP and transfer all securities to my account with another DP ?
Ans. Yes. You can submit account closure request to your DP in prescribed form. Your DP will transfer all your securities, as per your instruction, and close your demat account.
18. What would be the charges for account closure and securities transfer due to account closing?
Ans. The charges would be as per the schedule of charges of your DP, agreed by you at the time of account opening or any subsequent changes therein.



 

V. Nomination
1. Who can nominate?
Ans. Nomination can be made only by individuals holding beneficiary accounts either singly or jointly. Non-individuals including society, trust, body corporate, partnership firm, karta of Hindu Undivided Family, holder of power of attorney cannot nominate.
2. Can joint holders nominate?
Ans. Yes. Nomination is permitted for accounts with joint holders. But, in case of death of any of the joint holder(s), the securities will be transmitted to the surviving holder(s). Only in the event of death of all the joint holders, the securities will be transmitted to the nominee.
3. Can a NRI nominate?
Ans. Yes, NRI can nominate directly. But, the power of attorney holder cannot nominate on behalf of NRI.
4. Can a minor nominate?
Ans. No, a minor cannot nominate either directly or through its guardian.
5. Who can be a nominee?
Ans. Only an individual can be a nominee. A nominee shall not be a society, trust, body corporate, partnership firm, karta of Hindu Undivided Family or a power of attorney holder.
6. Can there be more than one nominee?
Ans. Ans. No, only one nomination can be made for one depository account.
7. Can a minor be a nominee?
Ans. Yes, a minor can be a nominee. In such a case, the guardian will sign on behalf of the nominee and in addition to the name and photograph of the nominee, the name, address and the photograph of the guardian must be submitted to the DP.
8. Can separate nomination be made for each security held in a depository account?
Ans. No. Nomination can be made account wise and not security wise.
9. Can a NRI be a nominee?
Ans. Yes, NRI can be a nominee subject to the exchange control regulations in force from time to time.
10. What is the procedure for nomination?
Ans. The nomination form duly filled-in should be submitted to the DP either at the time of account opening or later. The account holder, nominee and two witnesses must sign this form and the name, address and photograph of the nominee must be submitted. If nomination was not made at the time of account opening , it can be made subsequently by submitting the nomination form.
11. Can the nominee be changed?
Ans. Yes, the nomination can be changed anytime by the account holder/s by simply filling up the nomination form once again and submitting it to the DP.



 

VI. Transmission
1. What does transmission mean in relation to demat accounts?
Ans. Transmission is the process by which securities of a deceased account holder are transferred to the account of the surviving joint holder(s)/nominee/legal heirs of the deceased account holder. Process of transmission in case of dematerialised holdings is more convenient as the transmission formalities for all securities held in a demat account can be completed by submitting documents to the DP whereas in case of physical securities the surviving joint holder(s)/nominee/ legal heirs has to correspond independently with each company in which shares are held.
2. What is the procedure for transmission of securities to the nominee in case of the death of the sole account holder ?
Ans. In case of the death of the sole holder , for the purpose of transmission of securities, the nominee has to submit a duly filled-in transmission form, notarised copy of death certificate and an affidavit in the prescribed format to the DP. After verifying these documents and if found in order, the DP will transmit the securities to the account of the nominee.
3. What would happen if no nomination is made for the account?
Ans. In case nomination is not made by the sole account holder, the securities would be transmitted to the account of legal heir(s), as may be determined by an order of the competent court. However in cases where the value of securities to be transmitted is less than Rs. 1,00,000/- the DP may process the request based on submission of necessary letter of indemnity , surety , affidavits and NOC documents.
4. What is the procedure for transmission in case of Joint Accounts ?
Ans. In the event of death of one of the joint holders , the securities will be transmitted to the surviving holder(s) on submission of Transmission Form and notarised copy of the death certificate of the deceased joint holder to the DP. For transmission of securities, the account of the surviving holder(s) must be in the same sequence in which the names appear in the joint account to be closed.



 

VII. Dematerialisation
1. What do you mean by dematerialisation?
Ans. Dematerialisation is the process by which physical certificates of an investor are converted to an equivalent number of securities in electronic form and credited in the investor's account with its DP. In order to dematerialise certificates; an investor will have to first open an account with a DP and then request for the dematerialisation of certificates by filling up a dematerialisation request form [DRF], which is available with the DP and submitting the same along with the physical certificates. The investor has to ensure that before the certificates are handed over to the DP for demat, they are defaced by marking "Surrendered for Dematerialisation" on the face of the certificates.
2. Can I dematerialise any share certificate?
Ans. You can dematerialise only those certificates that are already registered in your name and are in the list of securities admitted for dematerialisation at NSDL. All the scrips included in S&P, CNX, NIFTY and BSE SENSEX have already joined NSDL. This list has more than 4,300 companies and is steadily growing. You can get an updated list of these companies from your DP or from NSDL's office or from NSDL website at www.nsdl.co.in.
3. What precautions should I take before defacing a share certificate?
Ans. Before defacing the share certificate, you must ensure that it is available for dematerialisation. You must therefore check with your Depository Participant (DP) whether the ISIN (code number for the security in a depository system) has been activated and made available for dematerialisation by the depository. If yes, then you may deface the share certificate. The certificates are defaced by marking "Surrendered for Dematerialisation" on the face of the certificate.
4. How long does the dematerialisation process take?
Ans. Dematerialisation will normally take about 30 days.
5. What if it takes more than 30 days for dematerialisation of the shares?
Ans.

If the process of dematerialisation takes more than 30 days, please contact your DP. If he is unable to help you, then you may send your grievance to:

The Officer in Charge
Investor Grievance Cell
National Securities Depository Limited

4th Floor, Trade World
Kamala Mills Compound
Senapati Bapat Marg
Lower Parel, Mumbai - 400 013
Email: relations@nsdl.co.in



 

VIII. Government Securities and Debt Instruments
1. Can I dematerialise my debt instruments , mutual fund units , government securities also in my demat account ?
Ans. Yes. You can dematerialise and hold all such investments in a single demat account.



 

IX. Rematerialisation
1. Can my electronic holdings be converted back into certificates?
Ans. Yes. If you wish to get back your securities in physical form, all you have to do is to request your DP for rematerialisation of the same. 'Rematerialisation' is the term used for converting electronic holdings back into certificates. Your DP will forward your request to NSDL, after verifying that you have the necessary balance. NSDL in turn will intimate the registrar who will print the certificates and dispatch the same to you.



 

X. Trading / Settlement
1. What is the procedure for selling dematerialised securities?
Ans.

The procedure for selling dematerialised securities is very simple. After you have sold the securities, you would instruct your DP to debit your account with the number of securities sold by you and credit your broker's clearing account. This delivery instruction has to be given to your DP using the delivery instruction slips given to you by your DP at the time of opening the account. Procedure for selling securities is given here below:

 

  • You sell securities in any of the stock exchanges linked to NSDL through a broker;
  • You give instruction to your DP to debit your account and credit the broker's [clearing member pool] account;
  • Before the pay-in day, your broker gives instruction to its DP for delivery to clearing corporation;
  • Your broker receives payment from the stock exchange [clearing corporation] ;
  • You receive payment from the broker for the sale of securities.
2. How can I purchase dematerialised securities?
Ans.

For receiving demat securities you may give a one-time standing instruction to your DP. This standing instruction can be given at the time of account opening or later. Alternatively, you may choose to give separate receipt instruction every time some securities are to be received. The transactions relating to purchase of securities are summarised below:

 

  • You purchase securities through a broker ;
  • You make payment to your broker who arranges payment to clearing corporation on the pay-in day ;
  • Your broker receives credit of securities in its clearing account (clearing member pool account) on the pay-out day;
  • Your broker gives instructions to its DP to debit clearing account and credit your account;
  • You receive shares into your account. However, if standing instructions are not given at the time of opening the account, you will have to give 'Receipt Instructions' to your DP for receiving credit,.

You should ensure that your broker transfers the securities from its clearing account to your depository account, before the book closure. If the securities remain in the clearing account of the broker, the company will give corporate benefits (dividend or bonus) to the broker. In that case, you will have to collect the benefits from your broker.

3. What do you mean by 'Market Trades' and 'Off Market Trades'?
Ans. Any trade settled through a clearing corporation is termed as a 'Market Trade'. These trades are done through stock brokers on a stock exchange. 'Off Market Trade' is one which is settled directly between two parties without the involvement of clearing corporation. The same delivery instruction slip can be used either for market trade or off-market trade by ticking one of the two options.
4. If I sell securities through a sub-broker, which part of the delivery instruction slip should be filled?
Ans. If you are delivering securities to your sub-broker you would need to fill-in the off-market trade portion of the delivery instruction slip.
5. What settlement details are required on the delivery instruction slip?
Ans. On every stock exchange, various settlements are effected every day such as daily settlement , auction settlement etc. Each of these settlements is identified by combination of a market type and a settlement number. You are required to mention the appropriate settlement details on the delivery instruction slip while transferring the shares to your broker's account. These settlement details are available on the contract note issued by the broker.
6. What is T+3 rolling settlement cycle and when delivery is to be given to a broker ?
Ans. In case of T+3 rolling settlements , the trades taking place on each trading day are required to be settled on the third day following the date of trade. For example trades of Monday will be settled on Thursday morning. In this example, if you have sold securities, you need to make sure that the securities reach the account of clearing member of the stock exchange latest by Wednesday.
7. In case of T+3 rolling settlement cycle if I am trading (selling) through a sub-broker when do I need to give delivery instruction to my DP?
Ans. In this case also the settlement deadlines will remain the same (i.e. Thursday morning for a Monday trade). However, there is an additional transfer involved. You will transfer securities to the sub-broker's account and the sub-broker will further transfer the securities to the account of clearing member. Therefore, in this case you should give delivery instructions to your DP immediately after confirmation of sale transaction.
8. How do I come to know about the settlement deadlines?
Ans. The depository participant with whom you have your demat account will prescribe the deadlines to be followed by you for submission of delivery instruction slips. You should deliver instructions to your DP as per these deadlines.
9. When I buy shares, in what time should I receive the securities from my broker?
Ans. The broker is expected to transfer the securities to you within two working days or four calendar days after securities are received in his pool account, provided you have made the requisite payment to the broker.
10. What precautions do I need to observe with respect to Delivery Instruction Slips [DIS]?
Ans.

The following precautions are to be taken :-

 

  • Ensure and insist with your DP to issue DIS book; do not accept loose slips.
  • Ensure that DIS numbers are pre-printed and DP takes acknowledgment from you for the DIS booklet issued to you.
  • Ensure that your account number [client id] is pre-stamped.
  • If your account is a joint account, all the joint holders have to sign the instruction slips. Instruction cannot be executed if all joint holders have not signed.
  • Avoid using loose slips
  • Do not leave signed blank DIS with anyone viz. broker/sub-broker.
  • Keep the DIS book under lock and key when not in use.
  • If only one entry is made in the DIS , strike out remaining space to prevent misuse by any one.
  • Please fill in target account -Id and all details in the DIS, yourself.
11. What is 'execution date' given in the delivery instruction form?
Ans. Execution date is the date on which securities will be actually debited from your account. The execution date written on the delivery instruction has to be entered by the DP, in the DPM system [computer]. DPM system will record the date and will debit your account only on that date. You may issue the instruction well in advance of the date on which you want the securities to be debited from your account but your account will be debited only on the execution date. This facility is called future execution date facility.
12. What benefit do I get by giving delivery instruction with a future execution date?
Ans. By giving a future dated instruction the risk of non-execution of instruction due to lack of time or last minute rush is covered.
13. What is the importance of record dates to me?
Ans. In case the securities bought by you are yet to be transferred into your account by your broker before the book closure / record date, you will not be entitled to receive corporate benefits such as dividend or bonus since your name will not figure in the list of beneficial owners. Hence, you must ensure that securities bought by you are transferred into your account before the book closure / record date announced by the company.



 

XI. Speed-e Facility (Internet Facility)
1. Is it possible to give delivery instructions to the DP over Internet and if yes how?
Ans. Yes. NSDL has recently launched a facility for delivering instructions to your DP over Internet , called SPEED-e. The facility can be used by all registered users. Your DP will help you in registering for the facility.
2. How does SPEED-e work?
Ans. You can submit delivery instructions electronically, on the SPEED-e website https://www.speed-e.nsdl.com, after your DP has authorised you to operate your account through the SPEED-e facility. You can monitor the status of such delivery instructions to ensure that the instructions have been executed.
3. How can I, as a Demat Account-holder / Clearing Member benefit from SPEED-e?
Ans. The benefit offered by SPEED-e to a demat account holder / Clearing Member is the convenience of conducting demat account transactions using an Internet connection from anywhere at anytime eliminating paperwork. Time and efforts for obtaining delivery instruction forms from your DP and submitting them to the DP everytime you sell securities is saved.
4. How can I register myself for SPEED-e?
Ans.

For using the SPEED-e facility it is essential that your DP must be registered with NSDL for this facility. There are two types of users for this facility , one is password based user who logs in with his password and can transfer securities only to three pre-specified broker accounts of his choice. The second is the smart-card based user who is issued a smart card for logging on to the site and can transfer the securities to any account. A password user can visit the SPEED-e website, fill-up the registration form available on the website. The website would allot a registration number and the DP of the client would authorise him for using the facility upon submission of a request with the registration number.

A smart card user can download the form from the website, fill it and submit the same to its DP. The DP will process the form and enable the client for using the facility. The smart card user will also be issued a smart card reader and a smart card.

5. What is the difference between Smart-card and Password based access to SPEED-e?
Ans. Smart card based access to SPEED-e is more secure as your identification is based both on "What you have i.e. smart card" and "what you know i.e. PIN code" and provides a digital signature to identify you. In the case of password based access , you should handle your password carefully. In view of this security difference, the password based users have been permitted to transfer securities through SPEED-e facility to only three pre-specified broker accounts. These three accounts can be changed by the user.
6. Is there any further benefit of the smart card option in SPEED-e facility?
Ans.

Following are the additional benefits of smart card option in SPEED-e facility :

 

  • smart card user can transfer securities to any account unlike password users where transfer of securities is permitted only to three pre-notified broker accounts;
  • single smart card can be used to access all your demat accounts, opened with the same DP;
  • facility of multiple authorisation;
  • you can freeze your demat account or any particular ISIN or specific quantity within an ISIN yourself, through SPEED-e. The account freezed using SPEED-e can be unfreezed only by you.

Thereby you can deliver instructions and transfer securities when you wish, lock the account and unlock it only when you need, i.e. complete control of your account in your hands.

7. How does one operate jointly held Demat Accounts through SPEED-e?
Ans. For password based operation, only one user can operate the account. Joint holders will have to give a power of attorney to one joint holder among themselves. For smart card based operation, in addition to what is stated above, all the joint holders can operate the account independently or jointly using multiple authorisation facility.



 

XII. Corporate Benefits
1. How would I get my dividend / interest or other cash entitlements?
Ans. The concerned company obtains the details of beneficiary holders and their holdings from NSDL. The payment to the investors will be made by the company through the ECS ( Electronic Clearing Service) facility or by issuing warrants on which your bank account details are printed. The bank account details will be those which you would have mentioned in your account opening form or changed thereafter.
2. How would I get my bonus shares or other non-cash entitlements?
Ans. The concerned company obtains the details of beneficiary holders and their holdings from NSDL. Your entitlement will be credited by the company directly in your NSDL depository account.
3. How will the investor confirm that bonus/rights entitlement is credited into the account?
Ans. An allotment advice will be sent by the Issuer/ its R&T agent for bonus/ rights entitlement. The Transaction Statement given by the DP, will also show the bonus/ rights credit into the account. The quantity shown in the advice and statement of transaction should match.



 

XIII. Pledging
1. What should I do if I want to pledge electronic securities?
Ans.

The procedure is as follows:

 

  • Both you (pledgor) as well as the lender (pledgee) must have depository accounts;
  • You have to initiate the pledge by submitting to your DP the details of the securities to be pledged in a standard format ;
  • The pledgee has to confirm the request through its DP. It is suggested that after creation of the pledge request, you may inform the pledgee and request him to confirm the request;
  • Once this is done, your securities are pledged All financial transactions between the pledgor and the pledgee are handled as per usual practice outside the depository system.
2. How can I close the pledge after repayment of my loan?
Ans. After you have repaid your loan, you can request for a closure of pledge by instructing your DP in a prescribed format. The pledgee on receiving the repayment will instruct its DP accordingly for the closure of the pledge.
3. Whether pledgee account can be in a different DP?
Ans. Yes. The pledgee can have an account with a different depository participant of NSDL.
4. Can I change the securities offered in a pledge?
Ans. Yes; if the pledgee [lender] agrees, you may change the securities offered in a pledge.
5. Who will receive dividend on the pledged securities?
Ans. Pledgor will continue to receive dividend on the pledged securities. The pledgee will get the benefits only if pledge is invoked and on record date the shares are in the pledgee's account.
6. How will the distribution of bonus shares for pledged shares happen?
Ans.

The software in NSDL has been modified to handle distribution of bonus entitlements through Automatic Corporate Action (ACA) Module. This works as follows:

 

  • The holdings as of the record date / book closure, (including those holdings which are pledged) are considered for computing bonus entitlements.
  • At the time of effecting the credit of bonus shares, the system checks whether pledge is still open or closed.
  • Where pledge orders are not closed / invoked or partially closed / invoked, the bonus entitlements in such cases are credited to the pledgor's account with pledge marked in favour of the pledgee.
  • If the pledge is closed/invoked fully, the bonus entitlements will be credited to the pledgor's account as free balances.



 

XIV. Securities Lending and Borrowing

SEBI has introduced Securities Lending and Borrowing scheme. As per this scheme, those persons having securities can lend their securities for consideration and those requiring securities (for meeting market obligations , as collateral etc.) can borrow the same. Under the scheme, the securities are lent through intermediaries who are approved by SEBI. The approved intermediary would borrow the securities for further lending to borrowers. Lenders of the securities and borrowers of the securities enter into separate agreements with the approved intermediary for lending and borrowing the securities . Lending and borrowing is effected through the depository system.

1. Can I lend the securities lying in my account ?
Ans. Yes. You can lend your securities through Intermediaries approved by SEBI.
2. How would I lend my demat securities?
Ans. You may enter into an agreement with the approved intermediary to be a lender under this scheme. After that, you may lend securities any time by submitting lending instruction to your DP.
3. How would I get back the securities lent by me?
Ans. Intermediary may return the securities at any time or at the end of the agreed period of lending. Intermediary has to repay the securities together with any benefits received during the period of the loan.
4. How would I receive the corporate benefits which would accrue on these securities during the period of lending ?
Ans. The benefits will be given to the Intermediary/borrower. However, whenever the securities are being returned/recalled, Intermediary/borrower will return the securities together with benefits received.



 

XV. Charges
1. What will be the charges for account opening and other depository related transactions?
Ans.

NSDL charges the DPs and not the investors. NSDL's charges to its DPs are fixed and are based on the usage of NSDL system. Complete details of NSDL charges as are payable by the DPs are available on NSDL website (www.nsdl.co.in). The DP charges its client for the services offered. The charges that the DP will be charging you for various services are mentioned in the Schedule of Charges which forms a part of the account opening agreement. You may keep a copy of this for your future reference. You can get the details of the charges from the DPs. You can also get a comparative list of DP charges from NSDL's office or from the NSDL website.

Your DP may revise charges by giving you 30 days notice in advance.



 

XVI. Inter Depository Transfers
1. If my depository account is with NSDL, can I receive my securities from an account holder having account with some other depository in India?
Ans. Yes. Inter depository transfers are possible.



 

XVII. Safety Features
1. How will I know that my DP has updated my account after each transaction?
Ans. Your DP will give you a Transaction Statement periodically, which will detail your current balances and the various transactions you have done through the depository account. If you so desire, your DP may provide Transaction Statement at intervals shorter than the stipulated ones, probably at a cost.
2. At what frequency will I receive my Transaction Statement from my DP?
Ans. You will receive a Transaction Statement from your DP once in a quarter. If you have done any transaction during the quarter, you will receive the statement within fifteen days of the transaction.
3. What is to be done if there are any discrepancies in my transaction statement?
Ans. In case of any discrepancy in the transaction statement, you can contact your DP. If the discrepancy cannot be resolved at the DP level, you should approach NSDL. NSDL also sends out a statement of holdings to a few clients of DPs, picked at random. In case the balance in your account as indicated by your DP does not tally with the balance as indicated by NSDL, you can contact your DP/ NSDL for clarification.
4. What happens if I lose my Transaction Statement?
Ans. You should inform your DP and obtain a duplicate Transaction Statement.
5. What security do I have if the only proof of my holdings in the depository is merely a piece of paper indicating my account balance?
Ans. No transaction can be effected in your account without your written authorisation. Further, if you are away for a long time, you have the facility of freezing your account wherein only credits into your account will be allowed and no debit will be possible.
6. What will happen if my DP goes bankrupt or stops operation?
Ans. In a rare event of your DP going bankrupt or closing the operations, the interests of the investors will be fully protected. In such a situation, the investors will be given an option of either transferring the securities to a new DP or they may rematerialise the securities.
7. What precautions does NSDL take to protect the data in its depository system?
Ans.

The data carries a high importance in the NSDL depository system. NSDL has taken necessary steps to protect the transmission and storage of data. The data is protected from unauthorised access, manipulation and destruction. The following back up practices are adopted to protect the data:

 

  1. Local Back up
  2. Remote Back up
  3. Disaster Recovery Site

In addition to this, every DP is required to take daily back up, at the end of each day of operation.

8. Can I freeze my account?
Ans. NSDL system provides the facility to freeze the depository accounts for any debits or for both, debits and credits. In an account which is "freezed for debits", no debits will be permitted from the account, till the time it is unfreezed.
9. What should I do if my DP is unable to resolve my problem?
Ans.

In case of failure of a DP to resolve your grievance, you can write to the investor grievance cell of NSDL at the following address:

The Officer in Charge
Investor Grievance Cell
National Securities Depository Limited

4th Floor, Trade World
Kamala Mills Compound
Senapati Bapat Marg
Lower Parel, Mumbai - 400 013
Email : relations@nsdl.co.in

 

 

Question. 21What is cloud computing?
(BCA MCA)
Answer.

 

Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth.

A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc. You dont need a software or a server to use them. All a consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails. The server and email management software is all on the cloud ( internet) and is totally managed by the cloud service provider Yaho , Google etc. The consumer gets to use the software alone and enjoy the benefits. The analogy is , 'If you need milk , would you buy a cow ?' All the users or consumers need is to get the benefits of using the software or hardware of the computer like sending emails etc. Just to get this benefit (milk) why should a consumer buy a (cow) software /hardware ?

Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: "application" "storage" and "connectivity." Each segment serves a different purpose and offers different products for businesses and individuals around the world. In June 2011, a study conducted by VersionOne found that 91% of senior IT professionals actually don't know what cloud computing is and two-thirds of senior finance professionals are clear by the concept, highlighting the young nature of the technology. In Sept 2011, an Aberdeen Group study found that disciplined companies achieved on average an 68% increase in their IT expense because cloud computing and only a 10% reduction in data center power costs

Question. 22What Is CDMA?
(CDMA)
Answer.

 

 

CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS

INTRODUCTION:-

          Mobile communications are rapidly becoming more and more necessary for everyday activities. With so many more users to accommodate, more efficient use of bandwidth is a priority among cellular phone system operators. Equally important is the security and reliability of these calls. One solution that has been offered is a CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM.

            CDMA is one method for implementing a multiple access communication system. MULTIPLE ACCESS is a technique where many subscribers or local stations can share the use of the use of a communication channel at the same time or nearly so despite the fact originate from widely different locations. A channel can be thought of as merely a portion of the limited radio resource, which is temporarily allocated for a specific purpose, such as someone’s phone call. A multiple access method is a definition of how the radio spectrum is divided into channels and how the channels are allocated to the many users of the system.

              Since there are multiple users transmitting over the same channel, a method must be established so that individual users will not disrupt one another. There are essentially three ways to do this.

1.               FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS                           

In this technique, the available bandwidth is split up into non-overlapping frequency bands and these disjoint sub bands of frequency are allocated to the different users on a continuous time basis. In order to reduce interference between users allocated adjacent channel bands, channel bands are used to act as buffer zones, as illustrated in figure(1). Theseguard bands are necessary because of the impossibility of achieving ideal filtering for separating the different users. It could be compared to AM or FM broadcasting radio where each station has a frequency assigned.

1.     TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS

In this technique, each user is allocated the full spectral occupancy of    

The channel, but only for a short duration of time called time slot. Buffers zones are in the form of guard times are inserted between the assigned time slots. This is done to reduce interference between users by allowing for time uncertainty that arises due to system imperfections, especially in synchronization scheme.    

DRAWBACKS:

          In both FDMA and TDMA, only one subscriber at a time is assigned to a channel. No other conversion can access this channel until the subscriber’s call is finished or until that original call to handed off to a different channel by the system. Voice data tends to be burst in nature. So much of the time, no data is being sent over the channel. This inefficiency tends to limit the capacity of the system.

     3.  CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS

          The above drawbacks are overcome in this third technique in which the users are spread across both frequency and time in the same

Channel. This is a hybrid combination of FDMA and TDMA. For example,frequency hopping may be employed to ensure during each successive time slot, the frequency bands assigned to the users are recorded in random manner. During time slot 1, user 1 occupies frequency band 1, user 2 occupies frequency band 2, user 3 occupies band 3 and so on. During time slot 2, user 1 hops to frequency band 3, user 2 hops to band 1, user 3 hops to band 2, and so on. An important advantage of CDMA over FDMA and TDMA is that it can provide for secure communication.

  MEANING OF CDMA:

           Here, the users are spread across both frequency and time in the same channel. Here, unique digital codes, rather than separate RF frequencies or channels are used to differentiate subscribers. The codes are shared by both the mobile stations (cellular phone) and the base station, and are called “pseudo random code sequences” or “pseudo-noise code sequences”. 

PN – SEQUENCE:

         A PN – sequence is a periodic binary sequence with a noise like waveform that is usually generated by means of a feedback shift register. ”pseudo” word is used, as these are not real noise. These are noise like.

BASIS OF CDMA:

 Basis of CDMA is the spread spectrum technology.

SPREAD SPECTRUM is a means of transmission in which the data sequence occupies a bandwidth in excess of the minimum bandwidth necessary to send it. Spread spectrum is accomplished before transmission through the use of a code that is independent of the data sequence (PN).

           It can provide secure communication in hostile environment such that the transmitted signal is not easily detected or recognized by unwanted listeners. It can reject interference whether it is the unintentional interference by another user simultaneously attempting to transmit through the channel, or the intentional interference by a hostile transmitter attempting to jam the transmission. Another application is in multiple access communication in which a number of independent users can share a common channel without an external synchronizing mechanism.

 

TYPES OF SPREAD SPECTRUM

1.     DIRECT SEQUENCE SPREAD SPECTRUM

DS sequence allows each station to transmit over the entire frequencySpectrum all the time. Multiple simultaneous transmissions are separated using some sort of coding technique that is each user is assigned a chip sequence. The sender and receiver synchronize by the receiver locking into the chip sequence and the sender and receiver locking into the chip sequence of the sender. All the other (unsynchronized) transmission is then seen as random noise. So with CDMA each user uses the full frequency spectrum.         

           They employ a high speed code sequence along with the basic information being sent, to modulate their RF carriers. The high speed code sequence is used directly setting the transmitted RF bandwidth.Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is the most common technique used in DS system. Direct sequence is, in essence, multiplication of a more conventional communication waveform by PN sequence in the transmitter.

2.     FREQUENCY HOPPING SPREAD SPECTRUM

FH – CDMA is a kind of spread spectrum technology that enables many users to share the same channel by employing a unique hopping pattern to distinguish different users’ transmission. The type of spread spectrum in which the carrier hops randomly from one frequency to another is called FH spread spectrum. A common modulation format for FH system is that of M-ary frequency shift keying (MFSK).the combination is referred to as FH/MFSK.          

           A major advantage of frequency hopping is that it can be implemented over a much larger frequency band than it is possible to implement DS- spreading, and the band can be noncontiguous. Another major advantage is that frequency hopping provides resistance to multiple – access interference while not requiring power control to prevent near – far problems. In DS – systems , accurate power control is crucial but becomes less effective as the carrier frequency is increased.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

            Frequency hopping does not cover the entire spread spectrum

Instantaneously, we are led to consider the rate at which the hops occur. So, we may identify two basic characterizations of frequency hopping.

1.     Slow frequency hopping, in which the symbol rate R of MFSK signal is an integrator multiple of the hop rate R. that is, several symbols are transmitted on each frequency hop

2.     Fast frequency hopping, in which the hop rate Rh is an integrator multiple of the MFSK symbol rate Rs. that is, the carrier frequency will change or hop several times during the transmission of one symbol.   

Multi-Carrier CDMA system

Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is a data transmission technique where several sub carriers are employed to transport the user’s data stream signal. Originally this technique was implemented using a bank of analogue SyQuest filters which provide a set of continuous-time orthogonal basis functions. Today using very fast and cost effective digital signal processors, multi-carrier modulation can be implemented using discrete Fourier transform (DFT) as the set of orthogonal sub carriers. This makes the technique very attractive.

Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) improves system capacity by making transmission more robust to frequency selective fading and enhances user spectral efficiency. The main drawbacks are:

  • Difficult sub carriers' synchronization in fading transmissions.
  • Sensitivity to frequency offset is more pronounced than for a single carrier.
  • Sensitivity to non-linear amplification (peak factor problem).

To gain the advantages of both schemes (CDMA & MCM), a combination known as multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) was proposed in 1993 taking after both CDMA & MCM schemes.

An MC-CDMA transmitter spreads the original data stream in the frequency domain over different sub carriers using a given spreading code. In this system the sub carriers convey the same information at one time. The MC-CDMA offers better frequency diversity to combat frequency selective fading.

                    Figure 3. MC-CDMA transmitter

The simplicity of the multi-carrier system is an important aspect in a cellular system especially for the down link receiver (mobile station). The modulation-demodulation is done by IDFT - DFT. A wavelet-based system can be used instead of DFT for the multi-carrier modulation. Wavelet transform has a property of time-frequency multi resolution. By choosing the right wavelet function and scaling function, the system can achieve the optimum resolution according to need.

 Figure 4. Spectrum of MC-CDMA signal

Digital communication systems can be viewed as general transmultiplexer systems, which consist of synthesis part and analysis part. The element, which plays an important role in characterization of the system, is the filter set used in both synthesis and analysis parts. The time-frequency properties of these filters, i.e. time spread and frequency spread, will determine the type of communication systems (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, OFDM, MC-CDMA, MC-DS-CDMA).

Consequently, the key decision is how to design and optimize this set of filters according to their applications. One of the optimization results for multi-carrier systems is to use one of perfect reconstruction quadrate mirror filter (PR-QMF) types which are called discrete wavelet multi tone (DWMT). Using this DWMT system for MC-CDMA cellular system yields the following advantages:

  • lower inter channel interference
  • more robust against multipart fading
  • more robust against narrow band interference or jamming signal

IS-95 CDMA system

The IS-95 CDMA system is a narrow band radio system. Bandwidth is limited to 1.25 MHz and a chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps. The system is intended to provide voice and low bit rate data service using circuit-switching techniques. Data rate varies from 1.2 kbps to 9.6 kbps. Forward (base station to mobile) and reverse (mobile to base station) link structures are different and each is capable of distinctive capacity. Forward transmission is coherent and synchronous while the reverse link is asynchronous. The 'chanellisation' in each link is achieved by using 64- chip orthogonal codes, including provision for pilot, synchronization, paging, and network access. Consequently, the number of active users able to simultaneously access the network is limited by the level of interference, service provisions and the number of 'channels' available.

              CDMA TECHNOLOGY IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION

Through CDMA’s application in cellular telephony is relatively new, but it is not anew technology. CDMA has been used in much military application, such as anti jamming, ranging and secure communication.

          The use of CDMA for civilian radio application is novel. Commercial application became possible because of following evolutionary developments.

·        Availability of very low cost, highly dense digital integrated circuits, which reduce the size, weight and cost of the subscriber station to an acceptably low level.

·        Realization that optimal multiple access communication requires that all user station regulate their transmission power to the lowest that will achieve adequate signal quality.

CDMA CELLULER RADIO STATION

              Cellular services are now being used every day by million of people worldwide. The number of customers requiring such services is increasing exponentially, and there is a demand for integration of a variety of multimedia services. The range of services includes short messaging, voice, data and video. Consequently, the bit rate required for the services varies widely from just 1.2 kbps for paging up to several Mbpsfor vedio transmissions. Furthermore, supporting such a wide range of data rates with flexible mobility management increase network complexity dramatically.

  In a cellular network, each base station assigns separate directional sector antennas or separate outputs of a phased array to cover dis joint cell sector in both the transmitting and receiving modes. Typically there are three sectors, and 2п/3 radians span each sector.

           Incelluler network, the frequency- hopping pattern can be chosen so that at any given instant of time , the frequency of the users within a cell sector are all different, and hence ,the received signals are all orthogonal if the mobile transmission are properly synchronized. Exact synchronization on the forward link is possible because acommon timing is available.the switching time or guard time between frequency- hopping pulses must be large enough to ensure that neither a small synchronization error nor multi-path  signals can subvert the orthogonality.

MULTI-USER INTERFERENCE IN CDMA SYSTEM

In contrast to FDMA and TDMA techniques which are frequency bandwidth limited. In CDMA system, each user data is spread by a pseudorandom code. All users then transmit in the same frequency band and are distinguished at the receiver by the user specific spreading code. All other signal are not despread because they use different codes. These signals appear as interference to the desired user because of non zero cross co-relation values between the spreading codes. As the number of user increases, the signal to interference ratio (SIR) decrease until the resulting performance is no longer acceptable. Thus, this multi –user interference must be reduced to achieve higher capacities. These are the following method to reduce the multiple –access interference.

1.   By  reducing cross-correlation in spread  spectrum system

·        Spreading the signal by orthogonal codes which have zero cross co-relation. This technique is very efficient in downlink transmission, because a base station can transmit to all user simultaneously and the spread synchronously at the chip level. Transmitting asynchronously in the uplink, to restore the orthogonality of the codes, the mobile user can be time-aligned by a synchronization method.

·        Cancellation schemes that usually work subtracting the interference caused by other user and require a significant processing power; they are very useful specially to solve near- for problems.

 

2.   Power control

                            Power control is essential on both uplink and  downlink, to minimize multiple access interference. A particular problem on the uplink is to prevent the case where mobile transmitters far away from the cells base station are swamped by the interference generated by the users closer to the receiver. provided  that rather than using constant power, the transmitter can be control in such a way that that the received powers from all users are roughly equal, then the benefits of spreading are realized. If the received power is controlled, then the subscriber   can occupy the same spectrum.

  Maximum capacity can is achieved if we adjust the power control so that the SNR is exactly what it need to be for an acceptable error rate. The sustainable capacity is proportional to the processing gain W=Ts/Tc reduced by the required SNR.

3.     Capacity  improvement  with CDMA antenna arrays

                  A simple equation for the uplink capacity U of a single CDMA cell is given by:

    U=1+WG/(Eb/N0)-(σ2/G)

   Where the value of Eb/N0 represents that required for adequate link performance. The scaler σ2 is the background noise power and S is the received signal power for each user. Finally g is the ratio of the antenna gain for the desired user to that of interfering user in that cell. The value of G depends on the beam pattern for each user, but will roughly proportional to

The array size M.

                As a result,antenna arrays can improve the capacity in two ways :

·        Increasing the antenna gain G and  hence the array M. this reduce the average level of interference from each user in the cell, permitting a capacity increase . however this gain factor can be reduced by user clustering in one part of the cell.

·        Reducing the required Eb/N0. antenna array can provide increased space diversity at the base station , which can permit the receiver to operate at lower power signal. This increase the tolerance of the   receiver to multiple access interference

 

MULTI-PATH FADING IN CDMA SYSTEM

Fading is a fluctuation in the received signal strength at the receiver  or a random variation in the received signal is known as fading. Fading of radio waves is the undesired variation in the intensity  or loudness f the waves received at the receiver .

        When the multi-path   components are “resolved ” by the CDMA waveform, that is, when their delays are separated by the  at least the de-

Correlation time of the spreading ,then they can be separated by the dispreading correlator in the receiver . they do not interfere because each components  correlate at a different delay. When the multipath components are separated  by less than the correlation time,  then they can not be separated  in the receiver , and they do interfere  with one another, leading to what is sometimes  called flat fading.

FADING ON CDMA CHANNEL

Fading is different in the forward  and  reverse  links.  It also depends on the fading rate , which in turn depends on the velocity of the mobile station .

Generally fading increases the average SNR  nedded for a particular rate . in the reverse link the power control will mitigate the effects of fading at low speed , at high speed it has little effect .

    So we can say that in the demodulation of the CDMA signals, the different paths may be independently received, which greatly reduces the severity of the multi-path fading. However  multipath fading can not be eliminatedbecause ocassionaly there may be multipath that can not  be independently processed by the demodulator.

ADVANTAGES

1.     Capacity increase

2.     No frequency management or assignment

3.     Best for micro-cell and in building system

4.     Reduce average transmitted power

5.     Reduces number of sites needed to support any  given amount of traffic

6.     Reduce deployment and operating cost because fewer cell sites are needed

7.     Improves the telephone traffic capacity

8.     improves the voice quality and eliminate audible  and effects of multipath fading

9.     Provides reliable transport mechanism for data communication,such as facsimile and internet traffic.

10.             Simplifies site selection

 

DISADVANTAGE

1.Multi-user interference or multiple access interference(MAI)

2.Multi-path fading

3.near- for problem

CONCLUSION

CDMA is radically new concept in wireless communication.

It has gained widespread international acceptance by celluler radio system operators as an upgrde that will dremetically increase both their systems capacity and the service quality. Moreever it spread spectrum technology is both more secure , less probable to intercept and jam,highly private and offer higher trasmmission quality than TDMA because of its increase  resistance to multipath distortion .

The principle type od CDMA systems are direct sequence CDMA ,frequency hopping CDMA and multicarrier CDMA . the major problem in CDMA is the multiple Access interference(MAI) which arises due the deviation of the spreading codes from perfect orthogonality . capacity of CDMA is interference limited .the obvious way to increase  capacity of the CDMA is to reduce the level of interference  . This is achieved by reducing cross correlation, power control and with antenna arrays.

 

Question. 23What is Ambient Intelligence?
(Ambient Intelligence)
Answer.

 

          

RECENT TRENDS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:

Information Technology has proved to be one of the powerful medium in the area of communication, security, reducing the work force of humans etc.  Technology has seen rapid improvement since a decade.  Ambient Intelligence is one of the prominent area in information technology which has seen a phenomenal growth since recent past.   

Ambient Intelligence is a vision where humans are surrounded by computing and networking technology unobtrusively embedded in their surroundings. The  objective  of  Ambient Intelligence or AmI  is  to  broaden  the  interaction  between  human  beings  and  digital information  technology  through  the  usage  of  ubiquitous  computing  devices.

Ambient Intelligence builds on three recent key technologies: Ubiquitous Computing,  Ubiquitous  Communication  and  Intelligent  User  Interfaces  –  some  of these  concepts  are  barely  a  decade  old  and  this  reflects  on  the  focus  of  current implementations of AmI. Ubiquitous Computing means integration of microprocessors  into  everyday  objects  like  furniture,  clothing,  white  goods,  toys, even  paint.  Ubiquitous Communication enables these objects to communicate with each other and the user by means of ad-hoc and wireless networking. An Intelligent User Interface enables the inhabitants of the AmI environment to control and interact with   the   environment   in   a   natural   (voice,   gestures)   and   personalized   way (preferences, context).

This paper explains how the Ambient Intelligence works, Applications, benefits, Security Mechanism and finally deals with the Home Security Systems architecture.

 

 

 

1. INTRODUCATION TO AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE:

            Ambient Intelligence   is  to  broaden  the  interaction  between  human  beings  and  digital information  technology  through  the  usage  of  ubiquitous  computing  devices.   Conventional computing  primarily  involves  user  interfaces  (UIs)  such  as  keyboard,  mouse,  and  visual display unit; while the large amount of ambient space that encompasses the user is not utilized as  it  could  be.   AmI  on  the  other  hand  uses  this  space  in  the  form  of,  for  example,  shape, movement,  scent  and  sound  recognition  or  output.  Sensors  would  adapt  to  a  homeowner through  sound,  scent,  shape,  and  movement. 

These information media become possible through new types of interfaces and will allow for drastically simplified and more intuitive use of devices. The  combination  of  simplified  use  of  devices  and  their  ability  to  communicate eventually results in increased efficiency for the users and, therefore, creates value, leading to a  higher  degree  of  ubiquity  of  computing  devices.

Ambient Intelligence builds on three recent technologies:

·         UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING

·         UBIQUITOUS  COMMUNICATION

·         USER ADAPTIVE INTERFACES

1.1 UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING:

            “Ubiquitous computing”, referring to omnipresent computers that serve people in their everyday lives at home and at work, functioning invisibly and unobtrusively in the background and freeing people to a large extent from tedious routine tasks. The general working definition of ubiquitous computing technology is any computing technology that permits human interaction away from a single workstation. This includes pen-based technology, hand-held or portable devices, large-scale interactive screens, wireless networking infrastructure, and voice or vision technology.

1.1.1 TECHNICAL FEATURES:

There are several technical features that must have a ubiquitous computing system.

  • Terminal and user interface issues
  • Low cost devices
  • High bandwidth
  • ‘Invisible’ file systems
  • Automatic installation
  • Personalize information
  • Privacy issues

 

1.2 UBIQUITOUS COMMUNICATION:

It enables flexible communication between interlinked devices that can be stationed in various locations or can even be portable.

  The following list presents different wireless technologies: 

  • Wireless LAN (W-LAN) applications per standard IEEE 802.11b offer high-speed transfer.
  • Bluetooth technology is used in today's handheld applications like cellular phones or personal digital assistants
  • Wireless body area networks (BANs) interlink various wearable devices, such as wireless data glasses, earpieces, microphones, and sensors, and can connect them to outside networks.
  • Radio frequency identification (RFID) encompasses wireless identification through radio transmission.

1.3 USER ADAPTIVE INTERFACES:

User adaptive interfaces, the third integral part of AmI, are also referred to as "Intelligent social user interfaces" (ISUIs).

ISUIs encompass interfaces that create a perceptive computer environment rather than one that relies solely on active and comprehensive user input. ISUIs can be grouped into five categories:

  • Visual recognition (e.g. face, 3D gesture, and location) and output
  • Sound recognition (e.g. speech, melody) and output
  • Scent recognition and output
  • Tactile recognition and output
  • Other sensor technologies

2. APPLICATIONS OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE:

Healthcare  and  social  support:  AmI  provides  many  opportunities  to  support  an  aging population, as envisaged in the Commission’s recent study The future of health care and care for the elderly: guaranteeing accessibility, quality and financial viability

Home in a networked society: AmI has the potential to create a private domestic

Sanctuary - “a place where one can lean back and be passive”.

It can also empower and enrich the individual within the home and provide additional and more flexible participation   in   work,   learning,   entertainment   and   family/social   interactions.   

 

Governance  and  public  services:  AmI  offers  many  opportunities,  enabling  social  support systems (including those related to child care, education and care of the elderly or infirm) to be delivered around the clock as befits a 24-hour economy and society

Mobility and transport: with AmI all ‘actors’ on the move, whether people or goods, can be location-aware and communicate with each other.

3. BENEFITS OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE:           

  • Reduces the time complexity for user.
  • More Interaction With the new technologies.
  • More Security.
  • Privacy and data synchronization.
  • Brings convergence for all your family’s personal data.

The final steps towards this vision will be allowed by three dominant trends:

  • The increase of richness and completeness of human-computer interaction, through technology extensions of the senses and of the human body
  • The  relevant  role  of  mobility,  through  the  development  of  mobile  communications and extended networks
  • The pervasive diffusion of   intelligence in the   space   around   us,   through   the development of advanced biosensors.

4. SMART HOME SYSTEM:

We are on the verge of an age of convergence, and the very first place you will interact with the new technologies will be at home. The most important room in the house, the living room, is where the majority of gadgets being made are targeted. This is because this is the room where you and your family spend most of waking hours-seeking entertainment. The gadgets will be controlled by the house CPU and will automatically follow you as you move around the house- switching on displays and when some one enters a room and switching of once every one leaves.

The Hallway /Entrance:

            The logical place for the main home security panel is somewhere near the front door. This will merely control the security settings of the house, such as turning on or off the movement’s sensors out sides, setting the burglar alarm, and auto locking the house at predefined times. All the settings will also be accessible from anywhere else in the house using touch sensitive video output devices, and entering the correct user name and password combinations.           

The main CPU will govern the security settings as well as other important semi-AmI functions such as privacy and data synchronization. Using secured wireless networks the house will also connect to various other devices, Such as the entertainment centre in the living room to send its instructions about what moves you requested for the evening, are what audio list is most popular at this time of day, and on this day of the week.

The house CPU will also monitor the external security camera and watch for movement or people approaching the doors or windows. You will be able to set it to pop up a visual of the person approaching on the video output device in the room you are currently in, while the speakers will play a soft alert sound

     Smart Home System

5. WORKING PROCEDURE OF SMART HOME SYSTEM:           

            Architecture reveals the working procedure of Smart Home System and how it protects the home from burglars.           Smart Home System describes how the ambient intelligence, is implemented in securing home from the intruders, and how to handle unwanted calls using Voice Recognition and Visual Recognition. For communication we use WiMAX and WiFi wireless technologies. In ‘Smart Home System’ we have induced a niche i.e., if a person comes to the home, he is inspected by the sensor devices and then the device categorizes the user (Known, Unknown and expected) based on their preloaded information, where it provides the appropriate information to the user instead of owner. It also provides options for user to communicate with the owner, then according to the option the intimation takes place. This method is also implemented in attending the phone calls, where it uses a series of queries to identify a person, instead of his visual recognition. The  Smart Home’s Security System will automatically intimate’s to the nearest police station and the owner by means of a ‘Burglar Alarm’, only if any illegal crime has been committed by the robberies. 

6. CONCLUSION:

            Ambient Intelligence on developing user-friendly low-cost solutions with a high level of network security.  This  involves  seamless  integration  of  nano-  and  opto-electronics,  natural user  interfaces  and  integration  of  electronics  in  new  computing  substrates  like  fabrics  and plastic. The tools used for designing Ambient Intelligence applications, the software running on them and the communications infrastructures are technological challenges to be solved within the next 3 to 6 years.

 

 

Question. 24What IS Bluetooth technology?
(Bluetooth )
Answer.

 

              Introduction to Bluetooth Technology

    Bluetooth is a radio frequency specification for short range, point to point and point to multi point voice and data transfer. Bluetooth technology facilitates the replacement of cables normally used to connect one device to another by a short range radio link. With the help of blue tooth we can operate our keyboard and mouse without direct connection of CPU. Printers, fax machines, headphone, mouse, keyboard or any other digital devices can be part of Bluetooth system.

   In spite of facilitating the replacement of cables, Bluetooth technology works as an universal medium to bridge the existing data networks, a peripheral interface for existing devices and provide a mechanism to form short ad hok network of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures.

    Due to their independence on short range radio link, Bluetooth devices do not require a line of site connection in order to communicate. Therefore a computer can print information on a printer if printer is in inside the room. Two blue tooth devices can talk to each other when they come within range of 10 meters to each other.

  Bluetooth technology represents an opportunity for the industry to deliver wireless solutions that are ubiquitous across a broad range of devices.

Why it’s name is Bluetooth?

 

While many new technologies bear technical names, like RS-232 or IEEE

802.11b, Bluetooth, the wireless technology, is different.  Bluetooth was named for the 10th Century Viking king , Harald Blatand (A.K.A., Bluetooth) who peacefully united all the tiny island kingdoms of Denmark, southern Sweden, and southern Norway into one country . In keeping with its namesake, Bluetooth, the new low-cost radio technology, is designed to unite or connect all different types of devices to effectively work as one. By uniting devices, Bluetooth eliminates the need for cabling in a wide range of products, including cellular phones, PCs, headphones, audio equipment, printers, and many more.

 

                     

                             Bluetooth Definitions

 

  • Piconet: Devices connected in an ad hoc fashion, that is, not requiring predefinition and planning, as with a standard network. Two to eight devices can be networked into a piconet. It is a peer network, that is, once connected, each device has equal access to the others. However, one device is defined as master, and the others as slaves.
  • Scatternet: Several piconets may form a larger scatternet, with each piconet maintaining independence.
  • Master unit: The master in a piconet whose clock and hopping sequence synchronizes the other devices.
  • Slave unit: Devices in a piconet that are not the master.
  • MAC address: Three bit address that distinguishes each unit in a piconet.
  • Parked units: Piconet devices that are synchronized but don't have MAC     addresses.
  • Sniff and hold mode: Power-saving mode of a piconet device.        

        

                How Bluetooth Technology  Work

   The technology of Bluetooth centers around a 9mm x 9mm microchip, which functions as a low cost and short range radio link. Bluetooth Technology provide a 10 meter personal bubble that support simultaneous transmission of both voice

and data for multiple devices. Up to 8 devices can be connected in a piconet, and uo to 10 piconets can exist within the 10 meter bubble. Each piconet support

up to 3 simultaneous full duplex voice devices.

       The gross data rate is 1 Mb/s, but the actual data rate are 432 kbps for full

duplex transmission,721/56kbps for asymmetric transmission, and 384 kbps for

tms2000 transmission.

         Bluetooth wireless technology is designed to be as secure as a wire with up to 128-bit public/private key authentication, and streaming cipher up to 64 bit based on a5 security.

      Transmission types and rates :

   The baseband (single channel per line) protocol combines circuit and packet switching. To assure that packets do not arrive out of order, slots (up to five) can be reserved for synchronous packets. As noted earlier, a different hop signal is used for each packet. Circuit switching can be either asynchronous or synchronous. Up to three synchronous (voice) data channels, or one synchronous and one asynchronous data channel, can be supported on one channel. Each synchronous channel can support a 64 Kb/s transfer rate, which is fully adequate for voice transmissions. An asynchronous channel can transmit as much as 721 Kb/s in one direction and 57.6 Kb/s in the opposite direction. It is also possible for an asynchronous connection to support 432.6 Kb/s in both directions if the link is symmetric.

     Radio frequency and spectrum hopping :

   What if there's a lot of radio noise? Won't that interfere with Bluetooth connections? As a rule, the answer is no. It is designed to use fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping, which will make connections robust. It is packet-based, and will jump to a new frequency after each packet is received, which not only helps limit interference problems, but also adds to security. Data rates are one megabyte/second, including headers. Full duplex transmissions (both directions at once) are accomplished via time division multiplexing.

  The Bluetooth radio chip functions at 2.4 gigahertz, which is in the unlicensed ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) band. It separates the 2.4 gigahertz frequency band into 79 hops one megahertz apart, starting with 2.402 and ending with 2.480 (though this bandwidth is narrower in Japan, France, and Spain). This spread spectrum is used to hop from one channel to another, pseudo-randomly, which adds a strong layer of security. Up to 1600 hops per second can be made. The standard frequency range is 10 centimeters to 10 meters, and can be extended to at least 100 meters by increasing transmission power.

 

 Data transmission:

   Data can be transmitted both synchronously and asynchronously. The Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO) method is used primarily for voice, and Asynchronous Connectionless (ACL) is primarily for data. Within a piconet, each master-slave pair can use a different transmission mode, and modes can be changed at any time. Time Division Duplex (TDD) is used by both SCO and ACL, and both support 16 types of packets, four of which are control packets that are the same in each type. Because of the need for smoothness in data transmission, SCO packets are generally delivered via reserved intervals, that is, the packets are sent in groups without allowing other transmissions to interrupt. SCO packets can be transmitted without polling by the sending unit. ACL links support both symmetric and assymetric transmissions.

Bandwidth is controlled by the master unit, which determines how much of the total each slave unit can use. Slaves cannot transmit data until they have been polled by the master, and the master can broadcast messages to the slave units via ACL link.

Network arrangement:

Bluetooth network arrangements (topology) can   be either point-to-point or point-to-multipoint. Any  unit in a piconet can establish a connection to another piconet to form a scatternet. See the  figure, which diagrams a scatternet in which piconet A, which consists of four units, is connected to piconet B, consisting of two units. Note that the master unit of A is not the link Bluetooth network arrangements (topology) can between the two piconets.

                                             

Error correction and security:

on code (FEC), 2/3 rate forward error correction code FEC, and automatic repeat request (ARQ). The FEC methods are designed to reduce the number of retransmissions. However, the over hea Three error correction techniques have been defined: 1/3 rate forward error corrected significantly slows transmissions, so is generally not used in relatively error-free environments, with the exception of packet headers. The ARQ scheme requires that the header error and cyclic redundancy checks are okay. When they are, an acknowledge is sent. When they aren't, the data is resent.

Security is provided in three ways: through pseudo-random frequency band hops, authentication, and encryption. Frequency band hops make it difficult for anyone to eavesdrop. Authentication allows a user to control connectivity to only devices specified. Encryption uses secret key lengths of 1, 40, and 64 bits. The quality of security is excellent for most applications. However, it is not the highest level available, and for those users who require it, the suggestion is to investigate separate network transfer protocols and security software.

                 Connection Protocol

 

     Bluetooth connections are established via the following techniques:

1.     Standby: Devices not connected in a piconet are in standby mode. In this mode, they listen for messages every 1.28 seconds over 32 hop frequencies (fewer in Japan, Spain, and France).

2.     Page/Inquiry: If a device wishes to make a connection with another device, it sends out a page message, if the address is known, or an inquiry followed by a page message, if it is unknown. The master unit sends out 16 identical page messages on 16 hop frequencies to the slave unit. If there is no response, the master retransmits on the other 16 hop frequencies. The inquiry method requires an extra response from the slave unit, since the MAC address is unknown to the master unit.

3.     Active: Data transmission occurs.

4.     Hold: When either the master or slave wishes, a hold mode can be established, during which no data is transmitted. The purpose of this is to conserve power. Otherwise, there is a constant data exchange. A typical reason for going into hold mode is the connection of several piconets.

5.     Sniff: The sniff mode, applicable only to slave units, is for power conservation, though not at as reduced a level as hold. During this mode, the slave does not take an active role in the piconet, but listens at a reduced level. This is usually a programmable setting.

6.     Park: Park mode is a more reduced level of activity than the hold mode. During it, the slave is synchronized to the piconet, thus not requiring full reactivation, but is not part of the traffic. In this state, they do not have MAC addresses, but only listen enough to keep their synchronization with the master and check for broadcast messages.

                          USAGE MODEL:

While the Bluetooth * usage model is based on connecting devices together, it is focused on three broad categories: voice/data access points, peripheral interconnects, and Personal Area Networking (PAN).

Voice/Data Access Points:

 

  Voice/data access points is one of the key initial usage models and involves connecting a computing device to a communicating device via a secure wireless link (see Figure 1). For example, a mobile computer equipped with Bluetooth technology could link to a mobile phone that uses Bluetooth technology to connect to the Internet to access e-mail. The mobile phone acts as a personal

access point. Even more ideal, the notebook can connect to the Internet while the cell phone is being carried in a briefcase or purse. The Bluetooth usage model also envisions public data access points in the future. Imagine the current data-equipped pay phones in airports being

upgraded with Bluetooth modems. This would allow any mobile device equipped with Bluetooth technology to easily connect to the Internet while located within ten meters of that access point. These access points could, of course, support much higher data rates than today’s modems, as public spaces could connect a variety of private Bluetooth access points via a LAN that is routed to the Internet over a DSL line, allowing each access point a private 1Mbps connection to the Internet.

 

Peripheral Interconnects :

  The second category of uses, peripheral interconnects, involves connecting other devices together as shown in Figure 2. Imagine standard keyboards, mice, and joysticks that work over a wireless link. The Bluetooth link is built into the mobile computer; therefore, the cost of the peripheral device is less because an access point is not needed. Additionally, many of these devices can be used in multiple markets. For example, a Bluetooth headset used in the office could be connected to a Bluetooth access point that provides access to the office phone and multi-      media functions of the mobile computer. When mobile, the same headset could be used to interface with the cellular phone (which can now remain in a

briefcase or purse).Another aspect of a short-range link like Bluetooth is in the area of proximity security devices. In this case, if one device is not within range of another device, the first device will go into a high security mode.

Personal Area Networking:

The last usage model, Personal Area Networking (PAN), focuses on the ad-hoc formation and breakdown of personal networks(see Figure 3). Imagine meeting someone in an airport and quickly and securely exchanging documents by establishing a private piconet. In the future, Bluetooth kiosks could provide access to electronic media that could be quickly downloaded for later access on the mobile device.

 

                     Bluetooth Special Interest group (SIG)

 

         Bluetooth special group is group of companies working together to define, developed promote an open royalty free specification for seamless wireless connectivity and cable replacement for a wide variety of mobility-enhancing devices. The original charter of the SIG is to monitor the technical development of a short range radio and to create an open global standard. It prevent the technology from becoming the property of any single company.

      In developing the Bluetooth specification, the SIG is strictly adhering to some basic principles that that can be summed up in five key words: freedom, security, simplicity, versatility and reliability. These keywords are the foundation of Bluetooth technology. To be Bluetooth certified, a device must pass interoperability testing by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group thus assuring that products meeting the specification will be able to interact with all other Bluetooth-certified products and with the Internet.

   In february1998, the Special Interest Group (SIG) was formed. The founding SIG member are Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia & Toshiba. Since then over 2000 adopter have joined including Compaq, Lucent, Motorola and 3com.

  

                         Bluetooth Characteristics:

These are the features of the Bluetooth technology:

  • It separates the frequency band into hops. This spread spectrum is used to hop from one channel to another, which adds a strong layer of security.
  • Up to eight devices can be networked in a piconet.
  • Signals can be transmitted through walls and briefcases, thus eliminating the need for line-of-sight.
  • Devices do not need to be pointed at each other, as signals are omni-directional.
  • Both synchronous and asynchronous applications are supported, making it easy to implement on a variety of devices and for a variety of services, such as voice and Internet.
  • Governments worldwide regulate it, so it is possible to utilize the same standard wherever one travels.

                            COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES

        While there is no single competing technology that covers the entire concept of Bluetooth wireless technology, in certain market segment other technology do exist.    

 IrDA

        For cable replacement, the infrared standard IrDA has been around for several years and is quite widespread. Most new portable PCs, PDAs, and some cellular phones support IrDA, although actual adoption by users has been rather limited. IrDA is faster than Bluetooth but is limited to point to point connections,

Whereas Bluetooth is also capable to point to multi point. IrDA’s biggest draw back is that it requires a clear line to sight, and is usually limited to a few feet    between devices. 

Wireless LAN:

        Wireless LAN based on the IEEE 802.11b standard are used to replace a wired LAN throughout a building. The transmission capacity is high and so is the number of simultaneous users. However, compared to Bluetooth, these wireless LANs are more expensive, consume more power and have a larger hardware footprint, making them unsuitable for small mobile devices.

                                     Bluetooth in the Future

What is the future direction of the Bluetooth standard?

At this time, we anticipate the Bluetooth SIG to evolve the Bluetoothtechnology to provide greater bandwidth & distances, thus increasing the potential platforms & applications used in the emerging personal area-networking marketplace.

What is the future of Bluetooth?Bluetooth is a continually expanding technology. There are plans to add many new application profiles. With over 1800 companies working on Bluetooth, the future could not be brighter. With a strong special interest group behind Bluetooth, the standardization of the application profiles is almost assured.

According to market researchers, Cahners In-Stat Group, it is anticipated that as many as 670 million products will have Bluetooth built-in by the year 2005.

Will the speed of Bluetooth increase?Some members of the Bluetooth SIG such as Sony & Eastman Kodak are interested in seeing the speed ofBluetooth increasing for applications such as streaming video. Proposals are under consideration but it is not clear when products based on any of the proposals would be available

                            Projected Market Growth:

Cahners In-Stat group estimates that the Bluetooth market will grow from virtually zero in 1999 to over 1 billion Bluetooth-enabled devices that will ship in 2005.

ADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY:

             1.No line of site restrictions as with IrDA.       

            2. Low power consumption makes integrated in battery powered devices    

               very practical.

             3. 2.4 GHz radio frequency ensures worldwide operability. 

            4. Tremendous momentum not only within the computer industry

                but other industries like cellular telephones and transportation.

APPLICATIONS:

Smart Home

Homes equipped with Bluetooth devices may be able to recognise the arrival of its bonafide residents and unlock the door on their arrival. The device will also adjust heat to a preset temperature. While this is happening, the data from the individual’s PDA may be exchanged with the home electronic board, and the family calendar is updated

to reflect the scheduled activities in the office.

The Internet Bridge

An extension of this model could be a mobile computer that allows surfing the Internet irrespective of the location of the user, and regardless of whether the user is cordlessly connected through a mobile phone (cellular) or through a wire line connection (e.g. PSTN, ISDN, LAN, xDSL).

Automatic Check-in: 

Ø  Hotels are testing, or plan to test, services that allow guests to check   in, unlock room doors and even control room temperature with handheld devices equipped with Bluetooth Technology.

Ø The Bluetooth enabled mobile phone or the PDA can present the electronic ticket to the airline system without one having to go through the queue at the check-in counters. The airline's on-line system performs the identification via the ID-tag feature built into the mobile phone or the PDA and confirms the reserved seat.

The Three-in-one Phone

  With Bluetooth support, one handset will be able to provide multiple functionality. When at home, the phone functions as a cordless phone, connected to the fixed line. When on the move, it functions as a mobile phone connected to the mobile network. Additionally, when the phone comes within range of another mobile phone with built-in Bluetooth technology, it functions as a walkie-talkie.

                            References :

        1. The official Bluetooth site,http:/www.bluetooth.com

        2. http://www.intel.com/mobile/bluetooth

        3. The wireless connectivity Technologies Comparison, Infrared and 

             Radio Frequency, Infrared Data Association, September 1998.

Question. 25What Is Performance Appraisal?
(Performance Appraisal)
Answer.

 

Performance Appraisal is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of an employee. The focus of the performance appraisal is measuring and improving the actual performance of the employee and also the future potential of the employee. Its aim is to measure what an employee does.
According to Flippo, a prominent personality in the field of Human resources, "performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job." Performance appraisal is a systematic way of reviewing and assessing the performance of an employee during a given period of time and planning for his future. 
It is a powerful tool to calibrate, refine and reward the performance of the employee. It helps to analyze his achievements and evaluate his contribution towards the achievements of the overall organizational goals.

By focusing the attention on performance, performance appraisal goes to the heart ofpersonnel management and reflects the management's interest in the progress of the employees.

Objectives Of Performance appraisal:

  • To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.


  • To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance.


  • To help the management in exercising organizational control.


  • Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior – subordinates and management – employees.


  • To diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals so as to identify the training and development needs of the future.


  • To provide feedback to the employees regarding their past performance.


  • Provide information to assist in the other personal decisions in the organization.


  • Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed by the employees.


  • To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development.


  • To reduce the grievances of the employees.

 

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